High-Efficiency Solar Cells

Physics, Materials, and Devices

As arenewable energy source, solar energy can be harvested and will be increasingly important in the inevitable transition from our current level of dependence on fossil fuels. One of the biggest challenges in photovoltaic technology is how to increase the photocurrent conversion efficiency. Since solar cells were developed several decades ago, consistent efforts have been made in exploring variables that influence optimal efficiency. In recent years, research into high-efficiency solar cells has accelerated with the rapid emergence of new materials and devices showing promising performance characteristics...

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Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Solar PV and wind energy is an integral part of different renewable energy resources, in general, and, in particular, it is the main and continuous input variable from the practically inexhaustible sun. Solar energy is expected to play a very significant role in the future especially in developing countries, but it also has potential in developed countries. Over the past few years, wind energy has shown the fastest rate of growth of any form of electricity generation with its development stimulated by concerns of national policy makers over climate change, energy diversity and security of supply. The material presented in this book has been chosen to provide a comprehensive account of solar energy modeling methods based on MATLAB/SIMULINK.

The book is intended for later year undergraduate,...

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Electromagnetic Foundations of Solar Radiation Collection

Electromagnetic Foundations of Solar Radiation Collection

This book is intended to be a technology resource for students of electrical science and for electrical engineering departments in universities and colleges with an interest in developing courses focused on the rapidly burgeoning topic of solar radiation collection. This development has been awakened by a growing concern of the impending dangers, for future generations, of climate change. The author hopes that this text will contribute, in some small way, to the evolution of a technological route out of our self-inflicted predicament caused by an unsustainable addiction to fossil fuels.

During the first decade of the twenty-first century, it is probably now fair to say that the vast majority of reputable scientists with an interest ...

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Solar Energy Fundamentals and Modeling Techniques

Atmosphere, Environment, Climate Change and Renewable Energy

Atmospheric and environmental pollution as a result of extensive fossil fuel ex­ploitation in almost all human activities has led to some undesirable phenomena that have not been experienced before in known human history. They are varied and include global warming, the greenhouse affect, climate change, ozone layer deple­tion, and acid rain. Since 1970 it has been understood scientifically by experiments and research that these phenomena are closely related to fossil fuel uses because they emit greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) which hin­der the long-wave terrestrial radiation from escaping into space and, consequently, the earth troposphere becomes warmer...

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Solar Power Generation

Technology, New Concepts & Policy

P. Jayarama Reddy

The amount of solar energy reaching the Earth is more than 10,000 times the current energy consumption by man. This resource is larger than all the alternative power sources currently available. With the rapidly growing population of mankind, the anticipated depletion of fossil fuels, the dangers associated with pollution such as acid rain and global warming and the hazards associated with using nuclear power generation, this resource can no longer be ignored.

The heating effect of solar energy can of course be used to directly heat water for domestic applications and passively heat buildings. Indirect differential heating of the Earth produces the wind which in turn can produce wave energy...

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Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells

Inorganic thin-film photovoltaics is a very old research topic with a scientific record of more than 30 years and tens of thousands of published papers. At the same time, thin-film photovoltaics is an emerging research field due to technological progress and the subsequent tremendous growth of the photovoltaic industry during recent years. As a consequence, many young scientists and engineers enter the field not only because of the growing demand for skilled scientific personal but also because of the many interesting scientific and technological questions that are still to be solved. As a consequence, there is a growing demand for skilled scientific staff entering the field who will face a multitude of challenging scientific and technolo­gical questions...

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Solar Energy Engineering

Worship of the sun can be traced back to the very limits of history. That it was a fundamental and ubiquitous stage in the development of man can be seen by the fact that in the Americas the Aztecs, and even earlier peoples, worshipped the sun; the people of Oceania, the Druids of Europe, the peoples of China and ancient Egypt worshipped the sun—in fact all the great early agrarian civilizations have practiced sun worship in one form or another. Whenever man has started to use the soil and realized (consciously or un­consciously) the effect of the sun on his life, he has come to worship it for its power. So today, we do not worship the sun, but we know and appreciate the extent of its influence on our lives...

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Solution-Processed Donors

Beate Burkhart and Barry C. Thompson

Department of Chemistry and Loker Hydrocarbon Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1661, USA barrycth@usc. edu

1.1 Introduction

With the world population growing rapidly, the energy demand is predicted to increase up to 40% by 2035 and one of the biggest tasks in recent history is to find technologies that can meet this challenge. Even though fossil fuels currently dominate the energy market, it is projected that renewable energy sources will play a much bigger role by 2035 due to increasing prices and limited resources of nonrenewables as well as environmental concerns [1].

Enough solar energy reaches the earth within 1 hour to meet the energy demand of the human population for an entire year [2], but electricity generati...

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