Step 1. Cut a piece sheet copper into the size and shape you wish for your cell. Although.025 inch thick copper was used for the cells described here, just about any thickness will do.
Copper is a soft metal and can be cut with tin snips or even with an old pair of scissors.
Cut your cell with a diameter of 1 1/2 inches, we strart with a smaller cell because it is much easier to work with. The larger the heat source the bigger the size copper you can use to create your solar cell. After you get the hang of it you can then build larger cells..
As you cut the copper, be sure to leave a "handle" so that you may grip the cell with pliers without marring the cell’s active surface.
the surface of the cell must be made extremely clean. Prepare a solution of nitric acid by carefully mixing 20 parts nitric acid and 80 parts distilled water. Remember towear protective goggles or other suitable eye protection and to work in a well ventilated area whenever you work with chemicals.