PV Modules and Array

The schematic shown in fig. 20 illustrates how solar cells are connected within a solar module. The output power from a single PV cell is relatively small (approx­imately 0.5 W) [20]. To maximize voltage and power, a solar array is a must. A PV array consists of numerous solar modules that are combined in series and pa­rallel to form panels, and these panels are connected together to form the entire PV array. The architecture can be thought of similar to fig. 19 with modules re­placing the cells. So, in a micro grid, there may be numerous solar arrays con­nected to provide the required power to a load. The equations used to solve the module current are presented below, where the superscripts: C represents the solar cell, M represents the solar module, and A represents the solar array. Each solar module contains a manufacturer’s data sheet that contains parameters for standard operating conditions. The parameters used are related to the datasheet to test and validate the model as well.

Maximum power for cell

PV Modules and Array

PV Modules and Array



max, 0


PV Modules and Array

Fig. 20 PV Module with NSM Series Branches and NPM Parallel Branches


Open circuit voltage for cell

PV Modules and Array



Short circuit current for cell

PV Modules and Array



Thermal voltage of the cell

PV Modules and Array



Open circuit voltage of the module


ОС, о








PV Modules and Array Подпись: (50)

Fill factor

Fill factor at standard conditions

Подпись: (51)vOC,0~^n{vOC,0 + 0.72)


vOC, 0 + 1

Equivalent series resistance














Serial resistance of a cell


t C ‘svOC,0

KS — ,c ‘sc, о


Cell parameters for operating conditions with inputs are: VM, Ta, Ga Irradiation Parameters


PV Modules and Array

Short circuit operating current


I sc — Ci Ga


Working temperature of cell


TL=Ta + C2Ga


Open circuit voltage


Vqc = V0cc, o – C3(TC – Г0С)


Thermal voltage of cell


PV Modules and Array



Calculated solar module current using cell parameters





Iм = l£rNp




1 — exp




Short circuit current for the module


jM _ jC Ы ‘SC — ‘SCnPM




Open circuit voltage for module


PV Modules and Array Подпись: (62)

Equivalent serial resistance for the cell

PV Modules and Array Подпись: (63)

Thermal voltage of module

Module current

Подпись:Подпись: (65)1 — exp

Module voltage

/,м _,м

Module power

pM = yMjM (66)

Also, array currents and voltage are calculated from the equations below.

Total current of array

1А = ҐЇ™1і (67)

Simplified total current of array

Iа = NsaVm (68)

Power generated by array

pA = yAjA (69)

Updated: October 27, 2015 — 12:10 pm