Earth storage

5.5.1. The Groningen project (the Netherlands)

5.5.2. The Vaulruz project (Switzerland)

5.5.3. SUNCLAY – Project at Kungsbacka (Sweden)

5.5.4. Heat piles for foundation and heat storage,

Huddinge (Sweden)

5.5.5. Energy storage in clay, Upplands Vasby (Sweden)

5.5.6. A1ternativenergieprojekt, Innsbruck-Kranebitten (Austria) Seasonal solar coupled ground storage, CCR – Ispra (EC)

Three phases are given, phases a) and b) show che lowering or the tune by means of a vibrating lance, whiLo phase c) shows the final stage. It should t>e noted that on removal of the lance the hole created by the lance closes leaving the tube completely surrounded by the soil.

Figure 44: Groningen/The heat storage system

SCHEME OF ГНЕ SEASONAL HEAT STORAGE RESERVOIR WITH A CENlRAL SHORT TERM ST0RAGE RESERVOIR CC. S.I.)

I

}

cylindrical; vertical axis diameter 38 тл death 20 m j

23.0 m3

62.0 MJ/K ‘

REFERENCES

/38, 39, 40, 41/ A. J.Th. M. WIJSMAN

C. DEN OUDEN

Institute of Applied Physics TNO-TH

P.0. Box 155

NL – 2600 AD DELFT

J. W. DE FEIJTER

Delft Soil Mechanics Laboratory Stieltjesweg 2 NL – 2628 CK DELFT

TITLE: THE VAULRUZ PROJECT

PERIOD: operating

since

1982

5

MA

IN SUBJECTS CF RESEARCH:

<:

_

storage material:

TES/Ш

theoret

і c a1/exper imen

tal

5

storage system :

YES/Ш

thecret

ical/experimental

total system :

YES/Ш

theoret

ical/experimental

1.

Material

: sandy gravel with clay

2.

Density

: 2200

kg/m

<

3.

Specific heat

. 900

J/kg К

zc

4.

Mean heat capacity

: 2.0

3

MJ/m к

( 0.5 x water)

<

5.

Thermal conductivity

: 1.5/2.0

W/m К

s

6.

Permeability

: –

2

a

7.

Operating temperature interval: 5 50

*C

on

8.

Price

: 0

DA/m^

Properties at temperature

: 20

°С

STORAGE CONTAINER AND COMPONENT PERFORMANCE

COST {incl. cost

for labour) 1

UA =

1 US$ 1980

1.

Storage volume

: 3500

3

m

Storage

60

000

UA

shape

: pyramidal

position: i^attlt/below/fpi«|}tf^Mb(Wtort< ground level

r

2.

Total heat capacity

: 7000

MJ/K

•>.

3.

Containment present

YES/m

Containment

20

О

О

О

UA

material

: vapour barrier

<

4.

Insulation present

YES/Ш

Insulation

30

000

UA

Я

position insulation

• roof and walls

material

: expanded polystyren

total volume insulation material: g^Q

m

5.

Heat exchanger present

: polyethylen tubes

YES/**©-

Heat exchanger 20

000

UA

heat exchange rate (theor

./exp.) :

W/K

Miscellaneous

40

000

UA+

6.

Annual performance (theor

./e*p. ): 65

<%)

Total system

1701000

UA

DATA OF TOTAL SYSTEM

Тле number of beat consumers

in the entire system: 1 maintenance center

1

Heat consumption system:

space heating/doeestic hot water/both

£

space heat load*

: Iі 111’500

MJ

SYS

hot water load*

: 116* 500

MJ

total load*

:

MJ

L4

Q

total system load*

: 1r 2281000

MJ

*

per design year and average

utilization conditions

Results are given for this location VAULRUZ Latitude: A-6°381 N Longitude: 6°58’E

Vaulruz

4-238

3886

11288*000 796’000

4321000

2. Total solar

2

idem per m collector

3. Total auxiliary heating

4. Total electricity consumption : 661000

MJ/m[18] [19] [20] (П80 kWh/m2)

; temperature below 18 MJ

MJ ( 65 % of load)

2

MJ (390 kWh/m ) collected MJ by oil burner kWh by heat pump

PRIMARY ENERGY SAVED

REFERENCES /42, 43, 44/

CONTACT SORANE SA

Route du Chatelard 52 CH – 1018 LAUSANNE

SUMMARY SHEET: SEASONAL HEAT STOOGE

EARTH/3

TITLE: SUNCLAY PROJECT AT KUNGSBACKA

PERIOD: in operation

since 1980

3

MAIN SUBJECTS OF RESEARCH:

<

storage material:

YES/ШИ

theoretical/exper imental

storage system :

YES /m

theoretics1/experimental

total system :

YES/IWOl

theoretical/experimental

1.

Material

■ pipe system in

natural cl

ay

2.

Density

: 1.6

kg/m3

<

3.

Specific heat

: 2300

J/kg К

ас

4.

Mean heat capacity

: 3680

MJ/m3 к

( x water)

<

з:

5.

Thermal conductivity

: 1.0

W/m К

<

6.

Permeability

2

m

7.

Operating temperature interval: ? – 15

*C

in

B.

Price

: 12 SEK

OA/m3

Properties at temperature

°С

STORAGE CONTAINER AND COMPONENT PERFORMANCE

COST {incl■ cost

for labour)

1.

Storage volume

: 851000

3

m

Storage 0.5 MSEK

UA

shape

. 36 x 68 x 35

position: above/below/par

tly below ground level

s:

2.

Total heat capacity

: 310.10

MJ/K

іг.

3.

Containment present

mw/xo

Containment

UA

material

<

4.

Insulation present

rEsjftm

Insulation

UA

P

position insulation

• above

material

. expanded burned

clay

total voltrae insulation material: 100

3

m

5.

Heat exchanger present

YES/NO

Heat exchangerO-5 MSEKNJft

heat exchange rate (theor./exp.):

W/K

Miscellaneous

UA+

6.

Annual performance (theor./exp.):

(%)

Total system Ц) MSEK

m

DATA OF TOTAL SYSTEM

The number of heat consumers

in the entire system: a school building

1.

Heat consumption system:

space heating/domestic hot water/both

space heat load*

:

MJ

SYS

hot water load*

:

MJ

<

total load*

:

MJ

H

H

total system load*

6

* 4.10

MJ

*

per heat consumer per year

– I –

2. Solar heat collecting system

Solar collectors

etatral^mHIMffiOl

(

– collector area

: 1500

2 / 2 я / x m

1

– type

: plate, integrated in the roof

Short term heat storage:

сепігаїдаШВШАЩадШММДОШіІІ

– storage volume

1

3 . 3 m / x m

– storage material

:

1

Total cost

* 0.4

UA

3. Seasonal heat storage resevoir

(see

above)

I

Total cost

UA

J

4. Heat transfer piping network

)

– total length

m

(

– heat loss rate

W/K. m. .

piping

Total cost

UA

5. Auxiliary heating:

central/distxibuted/not

presi

– type

: heat

pump, diesel engine

I

– power installed

kW / x kW

Total cost

UA / x UA

1

6. Electrical power for pumps

kW

1

Total power installed

kw

1

7. Total cost

1

– solar heating system

:

UA

– conventional heating system

:

UA

і

ANNUAL ENERGY FLOWS IN TOTAL SYSTEM: THEORETICAL/EXPERIMENTAL

Results are given for this location

1

Latitude: Longitude:

Climatological data for location

– global irradiation

: 3400

MJ/m2 ( 940 kWh/m2)

– number of degree days

; temperature below

flC

1. Total system load

MJ

2 * Total solar contr ibution

MJ ( % of load)

2

idem per m collector

: 1700

2

MJ (485 kWh/m )

3. Total auxiliary heating

MJ

4* Total electricity consumption

:

kWh

PRIMARY ENERGY SAVED

Fue1: oil

Fuel price:

1. Primary energy consumption for conventional system : 155 шз

2* Idem for solar heating system

with

seasonal heat storage: 110 m3 oil

Primary energy saved : 45 m3 oil

Resume:

Primary energy saved: 45 m3 oil

Extra system cost :

UA

TOTAL SYSTEM (CONTINUED)

/45/

CONTACT

G. HULTMARK Andersson & Hultmark Box 24 135

S – 400 32 GOTHENBURG

Heat exchanger UA

Miscellaneous 21000 SEK ТИКИ Total system 151000 SEK

REFERENCE /46/

CONTACT

L. WAHLSTROM Hagkonsult AB Box 1214

S – 181 23 LIDINGO

SUMMARY SHEET: SEASONAL НЕА

T STORAGE

EARTH/5

TITLE: ENERGY STORAGE IN CLAY,

UPPLANDS VASBY

PERIOD: 1982/83

MAIN SUBJECTS OF RESEARCH:

<:

– storage material:

YES /Ш

theoret

– storage system :

YES/Ш

t heor e t і c а і н

– total system :

YBB/NO

theoret

ісаІ/МНЩІЙШИІІИЙ

1. Material

pipe system in

clay

2. Density

1.6-1.8

kg/m3

<

3. Specific heat

3

1.9 10

J/kg К

■ 2£

4. Mean heat capacity

3.24

MJ/m3 К

{ x water)

<

5. Thermal conductivity

1.29

W/m К

<

6. Permeability

2

m

7. Operating temperature interval:

4 – 25

®C

in

8. Price

30 SEK

UA/m3

Properties at temperature

20

°С

STORAGE CONTAINER AND COMPONENT PERFORMANCE

COST (incl• cost

for labour)

1. Storage volume

:

1001000

3

m

Storage 3.1 MSEK

UA

shape

і

300 X 25 X 13

position: iUtWMW/belov/lpfliJit^ ground level

з:

2. Total heat capacity

325 10J

MJ/K

£

3. Containment present

YES/NO

Containment

UA

material

<

4. Insulation present

YES/NC

Insulation 0.4 MSEK IWM

position insulation

on top

material

burnt expanded

clay

total volume insulation material: 1100

3

m

5. Heat exchanger present

:

YES/WW

Heat exchanger 1.6

MSEKIUA

heat exchange rate (theor./exp.

):

W/K

Miscellaneous 0.3

MSEKfWtH-

6. Annual performance (theor

•/*xp.

):

(%>

Total system 5.4

MSEKtWfa

DATA OF TOTAL SYSTEM

The number of heat consumers

in the entire system: one factory

1. Heat consumption system:

space

heating/domestic hot *

ater/both

21

space heat load*

MJ

ІЛ

>■

СЛ

hot water load*

MJ

<

total load*

MJ

total system load*

MJ

* per heat consumer per year

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