Biomass pellet heating

Biomass pellet heating systems typically have a capacity ranging from 5 kW (low-energy single-family dwelling) to 100 kW (apartment building) and are used for heat only (not CHP). The data in the overview below are based on German systems and exclude VAT. Note, that small systems have a low number of full load hours since there is no backup available that has a capacity large enough to cover the full peak demand, as is usually the case for larger systems.

Подпись: 126 Подпись: Data for base year 2005 Extrapolation Minimum Average Maximum Unit to 2030 Investment cost (combustion plant only, including control) 120 380 800 2005€/kWth 0% Total investment including civil works, fuel and heat storage 250 500 1 000 2005€/kWf. th 0% Input data Conversion efficiency** 86 92 95 % +10% Fuel cost 9.7 12.5 15.3 2005€/GJ 0% Auxiliary energy needed 10 14 20 kWhe/kW/yr +5% Cost of auxiliary energy 0.05 0.15 0.2 2005€/kWhe +25% O&M 10 20 30 2005€/kWth/yr 0% Full load hours heating 1 100 2 000 2 500 hrs/yr 0% Lifetime 10 15 20 yr +20% Interest rate 5 10 15 %/yr +10% Intermediate results Annuity 8.0 13.1 19.9 %/yr Annual investment payment 20 66 199 2005€/kWth/yr Annual auxiliary energy cost 0.5 2.1 4 2005€/kWth/yr Annual O&M cost 10 20 30 2005€/kWth/yr Fuel input 4.2 7.8 10.5 GJ /kW /yr input th Total energy cost Output data - investment 2 9 50 2005€/GJ -5% to -1% - fuel 5 14 40 2005€/GJ -9% to -8% - auxiliary energy 0 0 1 2005€/GJ +31% - O&M 1 3 8 2005€/GJ 0% Total 8 26 99 2005€/GJ -6% to -4% * Covers worldwide systems for the base year 2005 and projected relative differences by 2030. Neither a reference system nor avoided costs due to fuel savings are incorporated. Installation costs are included but heat distribution costs are not. ** The maximum achievable conversion efficiency in 2030 is 103%.

Table A4 • Cost parameters for biomass pellet heating in 2005 (excluding VAT) with projections out to 2030*

Fuel costs are a dominant factor in the total heating cost along with system investment costs. Increasing lifetime and fuel efficiency could yield a 4% to 6% cost reduction in the year 2030 (a decrease from €26 /GJ to €25 /GJ (range €7 to 95 /GJ) assuming constant fuel prices.

Combusting wood chips for district heating is applied on a wider scale than are pellet burners. It can have higher investment costs but lower fuel prices. No separate cost overview is presented.

The data overview was compiled by IEA Bioenergy Task32 (Biomass Combustion and Co-firing) (Koppejan, 2007) using Hansen (2006) and Hartmann (2003) as sources.

Updated: October 27, 2015 — 12:08 pm