Chapter Summary

In this chapter, the impact of G2V and V2G technologies on power system and the benefits and challenges with the requirements and strategies for the interconnec­tion between PHEVs and power system were reviewed. With the help of a bidi­rectional charger PHEVs can act like energy storage devices and serve the network whenever necessary. Unidirectional charger was the logical first step of the PHEV while the addition of on board bidirectional charger makes PHEV a smart part for the future smart grid with the opportunity of charging from any outlet of the grid and supports the network by injecting energy back to the grid. The economic benefits, CO2 emissions, cost and the impact on the distribution system depend upon the cooperation between PHEV owner, aggregators and efficient strategy for grid operators.

Efficiency, stability, reliability and generation dispatch of a grid can be improved by using V2G operations. This mode of operation can offer active power regulation, reactive power support, power sources, current harmonic filtering, peak shaving and load balancing by valley filling for the grid. To improve the reliability of intermittent renewable energy sources PHEVs can provide possible backup as energy storage and as load at the time of excess generation. Several auxiliary supports can be provided by PHEVs to power system, such as voltage control, spinning reserves, reduce grid operating cost and generate revenue. Based on the power market value, the number of PHEVs and their battery energy capacities V2G mode of operation have the potential of net return between $90 and 4,000 per year per vehicle.

The V2G operation includes the cost of battery degradation, the need for smart communication between the vehicles and the grid, effects on the distribution system, the requirement for infrastructure changes, and political, social, technical and cultural issues. A number of proposed V2G technique have been discussed in this chapter, and it is shown that with a few disadvantage V2G technology is more economical and feasible from both owner and grid operator point of view. Political and environmental benefits can be ensured by the development of PHEVs. For the better interfacing of the PHEV and grid, the PHEV battery must have an extended life cycle with pre-determined standard of V2G and G2V connections.

Updated: October 23, 2015 — 12:41 pm