From the grid point of view, the instantaneous level of the overproduced power is critical, since it affects voltage levels locally in the grid. An analysis involving mean load cannot give any detailed insights into grid issues, but an average response in power overproduction to load matching measures can be determined. As an example, Figure 3 shows a duration graph over the overproduced power for the base case (case 0) and the two DSM cases (2a and 2b).
For the ALR 2 setup, the overproduced energy is heavily reduced, for the more extensive DSM scheme (case 2b) almost entirely. For the ALR 8 setup the effect is smaller since the amount of shiftable energy is smaller compared to the overproduction. A comparison with the panel orientation cases (not shown here) suggests that the DSM option is more effective at ALR 2 while the orientation options are more effective at ALR 8, since they shift more of the heavy overproduction from midday. A more comprehensive analysis of the impact on the overproduced power will be covered in .
For large system setups, corresponding to high penetration levels of PV, energy storage has the greatest potential of obtaining a better match between load and production in terms of solar fraction, although both DSM and PV array orientation options have comparable impacts. At more moderate overproduction, orientation and DSM options seem slightly better, because of energy losses in the storage medium.
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