Feed-in tariffs are used in a small number of EU-27 countries, comprising France, Luxembourg, The Netherlands and the UK.
In order to support renewable energy use in H&C, France created a ‘‘heating fund’’ in 2008. Varying between regions, project size, and sector (agricultural/ industrial, public sector), this fund provides operators of H&C installations with a feed-in premium. Eligible projects include those using STE. Installations must comply with certain levels of production and environmental performance to benefit from the incentive. The budget for this fund was €1.2 billion for the period 2008-2013.
Within the regulations for Luxembourg’s feed-in tariff, an additional premium for the use of solar energy heat was introduced. This premium is paid for each MWh of commercialized heat produced, with amounts ranging from €37/MWh to €42/MWh. Commencing in 2012, RES for heating in The Netherlands became eligible for support under a scheme called SDE+, in which heat produced by renewable energy projects was subject to receipt of a feed-in premium. Eligible technologies include heat derived from STE.
Finally, to help meet the UK’s overall RES targets, the government there launched the Renewable Heat Incentive, which consisted of a feed-in tariff for heat produced from RES. These tariffs vary depending on the installation’s size and the technology employed. The renewable heat incentives began operating in April 2011.