A photovoltaic electric system consists of photovoltaic modules, an electronic converter, a controller, and a bank of batteries. Each module is made of photovoltaic cells connected in series, parallel, or series/parallel, as part of a panel supported by a mechanical structure. A power converter may be used to regulate the flux of energy from the panel to the load so as to assure energy quality within certain limits. The electricity converted from solar modules should be stored in banks of batteries of high capacity to make the overall system feasible economically. The bank of batteries should store enough energy to minimize the night and/or low-light-intensity periods.
Maintenance of the modules should be limited to a wipe with a damp cloth, always using maximum care. Getting leaves or deposits on the panels should be avoided because these are very sensitive structures. The electric system should be installed in the following way:
1. Provide equipment grounding with a copper pole ground busbar of at least 2 m in length.
2. Connect the negative conductor, usually black in color with an alligator claw, to the ground bar.
3. Connect the other end of the negative cable, black in color, to the battery’s negative terminal.
4. Connect the negative conductor of the solar module to the negative pole of the electric fence equipment.
5. Connect the positive conductor of the solar module to the equipment’s positive pole.
6. Connect the positive cable of the electric fence to the positive terminal of the battery.
7. Connect the equipment’s electric discharge conductor to the galvanized wire of the fence.
Several other aspects should also be considered at the design stage of a photovoltaic-based power supply system [14-18]:
1. The site should be open, without constant shadows for the solar light.
2. Use one or more solar modules.
3. Use structures or a support of aluminum.
4. Use a load controller.
5. Use a bank or set of batteries.
6. Consider using an indicator of the level of battery charge.
7. Use points of load consumption.