In the public literature, energy conservation methods and techniques have been discussed by many authors including . Energy use issues discussed in this paper include; energy in installed capacity, operations and general plant utility management practices. Good plant management practices include: effective repairing of leaks (natural gas and compressed air); maintaining optimum combustion efficiency, as well as maintenance of pipe and equipment insulation. Best operational practices include: retrofits and/or replacement of production or auxiliary equipment, upgrades of process-specific equipment such as; new boilers, heat exchangers, economizers, and process control instrumentation. Overall efficiency for boilers are mainly determined by (a) combustion efficiency, and (b) structural and other losses. Combustion efficiency can be affected by excess air, exhaust temperature, burner tip and deflector replacements. Improvements in these areas include using newly developed and more efficient burners, as well as automatic combustion control . Structural improvements to minimize heat losses due to radiation and convection from surfaces, openings and from blowdown in boilers can also be carried out in order to conserve energy.