Annexes

Besides an “index”, annexes include a comprehensive bibliography, a list of compa­nies, research institutions, universities that are involved in matters relevant or per­taining to tidal power plants and related matters. It may be safely estimated that compared to the list compiled three years ago, there is an increase of approximately 30%.

The bibliography has a majority of works written in the English language, al­though considerable effort was expended to list French language contributions to the topic. 1 It has been arbitrarily cut off in 1982 and 1992. Papers, books and all other printed material pre-dating 1982 constitute the first section. The next one spans the 1982-1992 decade. If a motive for the 1982 cut-off has to be given, then let it be that it is the date when the first ’’modern” books dedicated to tidal energy/power were placed on the market (Charlier,[233] [234] Baker), the fifteenth anniversary of the Rance River Plant was about to be celebrated, and some improvements in construction and oper­ation had gained solid footing. This is not to say that some significant works dealing with TPPs had not been published, including i. a. those of Gibrat, Bernshtein, et al. before 1982.

The third section groups works placed into circulation since 1992. It might be appropriately pointed out that not less than 22% of all the publications fall within the 1992-2007 15 years span. It is the only one that includes, albeit in small num­ber, publication not in ”hard copy”, viz. in printed form but also in electronic form (CDs, etc). This section is also less comprehensive because several authors list their own sources—works they themselves consulted—but without complete bib­liographic details. The listings go to early 2007.

The General Bibliography encompasses most publications mentioned in foot­notes. One exception to this policy concerns Chapter 2, wherein tide mills are dis­cussed. A succinct bibliography has been appended at the end of that chapter to facilitate research on that specific subject.

Finally an intentionally kept-short glossary has been made into an annex. It is presumed that readers are today far more familiar with ad hoc terminology than they were in 1982 or 1993, dates of Charlier’s previous books on this subject.

[1] Hislop, D. (ed.), 1992, Energy Options. An introduction to small-scale energy technologies: Rugby, Intermediate Technology Publications.

[2] Kristoferson, L. A. and Bokalders, V., 1991, Renewable energy technologies. Their applications in developing countries: Rugby, Intermediate Technology Publications.

R. H. Charlier, C. W. Finkl, Ocean Energy, DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-77932-2.1, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

[3] Charlier, R. H. and Menanteau, L., 1999, The saga of the tide mill: Renew. Sustain. En. Rev.

[4] Charlier, R. H., 1982, Tidal energy: New York, Van Nostrand-Rheinhold.

[5] Barreau, M., 1997, 30th anniversary of the Rance tidal power station: La Houille Blanche-Rev. Int. de l’Eau 52, 3, 13.

[6] Bernshtein, L. B. and Usachev, I. N., 1957, Utilization of tidal power in Russia in overcoming the global and ecological crisis: La Houille Blanche-Rev. Int. de l’Eau 52, 3, 96-102.

[7] Anonymous, 1982, Fundy tidal power update ’82: Halifax, Nova Scotia, Tidal Power Corpora­tion.

[8] Delory, M. P., 1986, The Annapolis tidal generating station: Int. Symp. Wave, Tidal, OTEC and Small Scale Energy III, 125-132.

[9] Henceforth referred to by the acronym TPP.

[10] Charlier, R. H., 1982, op. cit. fn. 4.

[11] Charlier, R. H. and Justus, J. R., 1993, Ocean energies: Amsterdam-New York, Elsevier pp. 316-320.

[12] The labeling of this plant as “first” requires some caution, as small facilities were installed elsewhere before. The matter is discussed in a later chapter.

[13] Shaw, T. H. (ed.), 1979, Environmental effects study of a Severn Estuary tidal power station: Strathclyde UK, The University.

[14] Severn Barrage Committee, 1981, Tidal power from the Severn Estuary: London, H. M. Station­ary Office.

[15] Cf. fn. 15.

[16] The authors have not been able to ascertain whether this figure was indeed reached by that date.

[17] Chang, Y. T, 1996, Korean experiences in estimating the non-market benefits of the develop­ment of coastal resources: the case of a tidal plant: Book of Extended Abstr. Ocean Canada ’96 (Rimouski, Quebec) 40-44.

[18] Charlier, R. H., 2001, Ocean alternative energy. The view from China—“small is beautiful”: Renew. Sustain. En. Rev. 5, 3, 403-409.

[19] Fay, J. A. and Smachlo, M. A., 1982, Small scale tidal power plants: Cambridge, MA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT Sea-Grant College Program).

[20] Cave, P. R. and Evans, E. M., 1984, Tidal energy systems for isolated communities. In: West, E. (ed.), Alternative energy systems: New York, Pergamon pp. 9-14.

[21] Gorlov, A. M., 1979, Some new conceptions in the approach to harnessing tidal energy: Proc. Miami Int. Conf. Altern. En. Sources II, 1711-1795; Gorlov, A. M., 1982, idem: Proc. Conf. Tidal Power (New Bedford, NS, Inst. Oceanog.).

[22] Charlier, R. H., 2003, Sustainable co-generation from the tides: Renew. Sustain. En. Rev. 7, 187-213; 215-247.

[23] Heronemus, W. E., 1972, Pollution free energy from off-shore winds: 8th Ann. Conf. Expo. Mar. Tech. Soc. (Washington).

[24] For further information contacts can be made through (1) owner-coastal. list@udel. edu; (2) www. esru. strath. ac. uk/projects/E and E98-9/offshore/wind/wintr. htm; (3) www. coastal. udel. edu/ coastal/coastal. list. html

[25] Garrad, M. H., 1994, Study of offshore wind energy in the EC. Co-funded by the CEC, Joule I Programme: Brekendorf, Germany, Nattirliche EnergieVerlag.

[26] Anonymous, 2001, Offshore wind energy: ready to power a sustainable Europe: Brussels, CA-OWEE, The European Commission (Final Report).

[27] Belgian, British, Danish, Dutch, German, Irish, Swedish, possibly French, waters.

[28] Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Ireland, Nether­lands, Poland., Spain, Sweden.

[29] Cockerill, T. T., Harrison, R., Kuhn, M., et al., 1998, Opti-OWECSfinal report. III: Comparison of off-shore wind energy at European sites: Delft NL, Instituut voor Windtechnologie, Technische Universiteit Delft.

[30] Van Brussel, G. and Schontag, C., 1998, Operation and maintenance aspects of successful large offshore windfarms:Proc. Europ. Wind En. Conf. Dublin, Ireland no pp. nbrs

[31] Formerly Zuiderzee, prior to the damming and polderization of a major portion of the water body.

[32] Giebel, G., 2001, On the benefits of distributed generation of wind energy in Europe: Copen­hagen, Fortschritt Berichtte (VDI). DEA/CADETT, 2000, Electricity from offshore wind: Copen­hagen, Danish Energy Agency.

[33] Two facilities scheduled for that year.

[34] But not built at this writing.

[35] No date set at this writing.

[36] Federal Minister of the Environment Magda Algoet’s decision of June 25, 2002.

[37] Wave-harnessing systems can use flaps and paddles, focuses, heaving bodies, pitching and rolling bodies, pneumatic or cavity resonators, pressure, rotating outriggers, surges, a combina­tion of several of the above.

[38] You Yage and Yu Zhi, 1995, Wave loads and protective technology of an on-shore wave power device: Chinese Oc. Eng. 9, 4, 455-464.

[39] Panicker, N. N., 1976, Review of the technology for wave power conversion: Mar: Techn: Soc: J: 10, 3, 1-12.

[40] Stahl, A. W., 1982, The utilization of the power of ocean waves: Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. 13, 428-506.

[41] Hotta, H., Washio, Y., Yokozawa, H. and Miyazaki, T., 1996, Research and development on the wave power device “Mighty Whale”: Ren: En: 9, 1/4, 1223-1226.

[42] Kudo, K. and Hotta, H., 1984, Study of the optimal form of Kaimei-type wave power absorbing device: ECH. Rep. Jap. Mar. Sci. Technol. Center 13, 63-84.

[43] Cf. Charlier and Justus, 1993, op. cit. pp. 136-140

[44] French, M. and Bracewell, R., 1996, The systematic design of economic wave converters. In Chung, J. S., Molagnon, C. H. and Kim, A. (eds), Proc. 6th Int. Offshore and Polar Engng Conf. (ISOPECO) I, 106-110.

[45] The lecture was delivered in 1995. Recent publications on wave power in India include e. g. Raju, V. S. and Ravindram, M., 1996, Wave energy: power and progress in India: Ren. En. 9, 1-4, 339-345, and the assessment of wave power potential for the Indian coasts by Sivaramakrishnan, T. T., 1992, Wave power over the Indian seas during southwest monsoon: Energy 17, 6, 625-627.

[46] Charlier, R. H. & Justus, J. R., 1993, Ocean energies. Environmental economic and technolog­ical aspects of alternative power sources: Amsterdam, New York, London & Tokyo, Elsevier [Oceanography Series Nr 57] pp. 122-153; Ross, D., 1981, Energy from the waves: the first ever book on a review in technology: New York, Pergamon; Salter, S. H., 1979, Recent progress on ducks: Symposium on wave energy utilization-Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden.

[47] Cf.: www. greenjobs. com/Public/IndustryNews/i_news_00411.htm;www. oceanpd. com; www. google. nl/search? hl=nl&q=wave+farm+portugal&btnG=Google+zoeken&meta

[48] Charlier, R. H. and Justus, J. R., 1993, Ocean Energies: Amsterdam, Elsevier.

[49] Charlier, R. H. and Justus, J. R., 1993, op. cit.

[50] id. fn. 30.

[51] See further in Sect. 1.1.5.

[52] info@energyocean. com and www. Ocean-techexpo. com

[53] Ian Bryden, now (2007) at the University of Edinburgh, see following fn., chaired a session dubbed “Wave and Tide Farming” at the conference “Oceans 2007, IEEE/OES, Marine Challenges: Coastline to Deep Sea”, held in Aberdeen, Scotland 18-21 June 2007. [IEEE=Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (UK); OES=Oceanic Engineering Society].

[54] Bryden, I. G., Bulle, C., Baine, M. and Paish, O., 1995, Generating electricity from tidal currents in Orkney and Shetland: Underwater Technology 21, 2, 17-23; Cave, P. R. and Evans, E. M., 1984, Tidal stream energy systems for isolated communities. In West, M. J. et al., Alternative energy systems. Electrical integration and utilisation: Oxford, GB, Pergamon Press; Macleod, A., Barnes, S., Rados, K. G. and Bryden, I. G., 2002, Wakes effects in tidal current turbines. In MAREC, Marine renewable resources conferences, Newcastle, September 2002. Bryden, I. W., (in press), Assessing the potential of a simpled tidal channel to deliver useful energy: J. of Appl. Phys.

Cf. www. promocel. be;www. clubpac. be;www. ulg. ac. be.

[56] www. coastal. udel. edu/coastal/coastallist html; owner-coastal list @udel. edu; licofia@att. net

[57] Mariano, Utilization of tidal power [in latin], Siena, 1438.

[58] Roger H. Charlier, “From TideMills to Tidal Power”, in: Tidal Energy. New York London Melbourne, Van Nostrand Rheinhold, 1982, 2: 5274; idem, “Chapter VII”, in: R. H. Charlier, & J. R. Justus et al., Ocean resources; Environmental, economic and technological aspects of alter­native power sources. Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo, Elsevier, 1993.

[59] Robert Angues Buchanan, Industrial archaeology in Britain, London, Penguin books, 1977, 446 p.; Maurice Daumas, L’archeologie industrielle en France (Les hommes et l’histoire), Paris, R. Laffont, 1980, pp. 347-396 (Chapitre Les moulins de maree).

[60] Rex Wailes, “Tide mills in England and Wales”, Jr Inst. of Eng., J. and Rec. of Transact., 1941, 51:91-114.

R. H. Charlier, C. W. Finkl, Ocean Energy, DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-77932-2.2, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

[61] Philippe Veyrin, “Les moulins a maree du Pays basque”, Bull. Musee du Pays basque, 1936, pp. 414-423.

[62] Xoaquin Lorenzo Fernandez, “Muinos de mare”, Oporto, Trabalhos de Antrop. e Etnol., 1959, 17: 249-255; Fernando Castelo Branco, “A Plea for the study of tide mills in Portugal”, in : 1st Sym­posium of Molinology, Lisboa-Cascais, 1965a, pp. 81-83; idem, “Moinhos de mare em Portugal”, Lisboa, Panorama, 1965b, 4 (14).

[63] Claude Rivals, “Moulins a maree en France”, Trans. Third Symp. Intern. Molinological Soc., Arnhem, 1973.

[64] Jean-Louis Boithias & Antoine de la Vernhe, Les moulins a mer et les anciens meuniers du littoral: Mouleurs, piqueurs, porteurs et moulageurs, 1988, Metiers, Techniques et Artisans. Creer, 275 p.

[65] Jean-Louis Boithias & Antoine de la Vernhe, p. 15.

[66] Rex Wailes, pp. 91-114.

[67] idem.

[68] Ernesto Veiga de Oliveira, Fernando Galhano & Benjamin Pereira, Tecnologia tradicional por – tuguesa : Sistemas de moagem, Lisboa, Inst. Nac. Invest. Cient., Centro Est. Etnol., Col. Etnologia, 1983, 2: p. 83.

[69] Ernesto Veiga de Oliveira et al., pp. 84-86.

[70] Walter E. Minchinton, pp. 339-353; Rex Wailes, pp. 91-114.

[71] Loic Menanteau, Eric Guillemot & Jean-Rene Vanney, Mapa fisiografico del litoral atlantico de Andalucia. M. F. 04 Rotala Barrosa (Bahia de Cadiz), M. F. 05 Cabo RocheEnsenada de Bolo – nia, Junta de Andalucia & Casa de Velazquez, 1989, 2 maps at scale of 1: 50.000 + trilingual monography (58 p.).

[72] H. Creek, “Tidal mill near Boston”, Civil Engng, 1978, 22: 840-841.

[73] Jacques Guillet, “Meuniers et moulins a maree du Morbihan”, Le Chasse-Maree. Histoire et ethnologie marine, 1982, 5: p. 57; Bernard Le Nail, 26 p.; Jean-Louis Boithias & Antoine de la Vernhe, p. 15.

[74] Roger H. Charlier, 1982, pp. 55, 57 & 60.

[75] Roger H. Charlier, 1982, p. 61.

[76] Luis Azurmendi Perez, pp. 11-18.

[77] Report, Limia Varela & Benoit Bernard (c. 2, p. 2).

[78] Maud Bruneau, “Les moulins a maree de la Rance”, in: Bull. Fed. Fr. des Amis des Moulins, 1982, 7.

[79] J. P.M. Pannell, Old Souththampton shores, Southampton, David and Charles, 1967.

[80] Walter A. Minchinton & J. Perkins, Tidemills of Devon and Cornwall, 1971; Rex Wailes, Tide mills (parts I and II), London, Soc. Prot. Anc. Build., 1961; E. M. Gardner, Tide mills (part III), London, Soc. Prot. Anc. Build., 1963.

[81] Jean-Louis Boithias & A de la Vernhe, p. 16.

[82] J. Boulton, Neighbourhood and society: a London suburb in the sevententh century, Cambridge, Univ. Press, 1987, p. 23; M. J. Power, “Shadwell: the development of a London suburban commu­nity in the seventeenth century”, London J., 1978, 4: 29-46.

21 Loic Menanteau, Zones humides du littoral de la Communaute europeenne vues de I’espace / Wetlands of the European Community littoral seen since space / Zonas htimedas del litoral de la Comunidad europea vistas desde el espacio. T. I France, Espana, Portugal, Italia del Nord. Junta de Andalucia, Casa de Velazquez, CNES & SPOT IMAGE, C. M.P. R., pp. 45-134.

[84] Loic Menanteau et al., 1989.

[85] R. H. Charlier, Tidal energy. Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, 1982

[86] M. Gregory, A treatise of mechanics, 4th ed., London, 1826.

[87] Luis Azurmendi Perez, p. 25.

[88] BegonaBas Lopez,1991, p. 111.

[89] William Smith, The tide mill at Eling. History of the working mill, Southampton, Ensign Publi­cations, 1989; M. Southgate, The old tide mill at Eling, Southampton, Eling Tide Mill Trust Ltd, 1991.

[90] Jean-Louis Boithias & Antoine de la Vernhe, pp.155-156.

[91] Jean-Louis Boithias & Antoine de la Vernhe, p. 144.

[92] Walter E. Minchinton, pp. 339-353; idem, “Moulins a maree: etude preliminaire”, L’onde (Rev. de l’Assoc. des Meuniers d’eau), 1979, pp. 1-10; idem, “History to day”, in: Power from the sea, London, 1980, 30: 42-46.

[93] Begona Bas Lopez, 1991, p. 113.

[94] Jean-Louis Boithias & Antoine de la Vernhe, p. 186.

[95] Roger H. Charlier, 1982, p. 63.

[96] Report, Limia Varela & Benoit Bernard, Grande reconnaissance militaire de I’ile de Leon, San Fernando, 1826, Arch. Serv. Genie, Serv. Hist. АгшЄє de Terre, Cadix (c. 2, p. 2).

[97] Ernesto Veiga de Oliveira et al., pp. 133-134.

[98] cf. fn. 41.

[99] Begona Bas Lopez, 1991, p. 112.

[100] Jean-Louis Boithias & Antoine de la Vernhe, p. 164.

[101] Luis Azurmendi Perez, pp. 43-48 & 69.

[102] Report, Limia Varela & Benoit Bernard (c.2, p.2)

[103] A. Gutierrez, J. Munoz & S. Ariztondo, La industria molinera en Vizcaya en el siglo XVIII, Bilbao, Univ. de Deusto, 1984.

[104] Jean-Rene Vanney & Loic Menanteau, M. F. 02.

[105] W. Smith.

[106] First and third quarter-moons.

[107] The 1-3 days lag is the parallax age, also known as the age of parallax inequality.

[108] A stochastic function is a probability function containing a random variable.

[109] References are to the General Bibliography, “Annex I”.

R. H. Charlier, C. W. Finkl, Ocean Energy, DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-77932-2.4, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

[110] Easton, W. R., 1921, Report on North Kimberley District: Perth (West. Austr.), Northwest De­partment Government.

[111] Lewis, J. G., 1963, The tidal power resources of the Kimberleys: J. Inst. Eng. Austral. 35, 12, 333-345; Maunsell et al.,1976, Kimberley tidal power: Perth (W. A.), The State Energy Commis­sion of Western Australia; Saunders, D. W., 1974, Kimberley tidal power revisited: The Inst. Eng. Austral., Conf. [Proc. Techn. Conf.] Melbourne (Vict.) 47, 11, 44-51. 47-55; Saunders, D. W., 1976, Kimberley tidal power: Proc. Cong. Austr. New Z. Assoc. Adv. Sci; Scott, W. E., 1976, Aus­tralia takes a new look at tidal energy: Ener. Int. 13, 9, 41-43.

[112] SOGREAH=Societe Grenobloise d’Applications et d’Etudes Hydrauliques (constructors of the Rance TPP for the French electricity company).

[113] Keough, Mc., 1959, Tidal power: NZElec. J. 32, 3, 82-83.

[114] See details, e. g. in Charlier, 1982, Tidal energy: New York, Van Nostrand-Reinhold.

[115] Sharma, H. R. & Vats, T. P., 1985, Environmental impacts of the proposed Katchchh Tidal Power Plant: Proc. Int. Sem. Env. Assmt, Water Research at Roorkee, India; Vaidyaraman, P. P. et al., 1986, Experience during field data collection for tidal power project in the Gulf of Katchchh: Int. Symp. Wave, Tidal, OTEC & small scale HydroEnergy 3, 15, 191, 201.

[116] Problems due to it seem to have arisen since 2006.

[117] See also chapter on “Tidal power in the Americas”, and Annex IV.

[118] See Charlier, R. H., 1982, Tidal energy: New York, Van Nostrand-Reinhold; Laberge 1978.

[119] Baker, G. C., Tidal power. Some historical implications. Proc. Conf. New Approaches to tidal power. Bedford Inst. Ocean. 1982, I, 1-6; Baker, G. C., Tidal power. London, Plenum Press 1982; Charlier, R. H., Tidal energy. New York, Van Nostrand-Rheinhold; Charlier, R. H. and Justus, J. R., Is tidal power coming of age? In Charlier, R. H. & Justus, J. R., Ocean energies. Amsterdam, Elsevier 1993 [Chap. 7]; Charlier, R. H., Sustainable co-generation from the tides. Ren. Sust. Energy Rev. 2003, 7, 3, 187-213; Gibrat, R., Les usines maremotrices. [in French: tidal power plants] Paris, Electricite de France 1955.

[120] Charlier, R. H., Sustainable co-generation from the tides. Ren. Sust. Energy Rev. A bibliography, 2003, 7,3,215-247.

[121] Richter, J. P., The notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. New York, Dover 1970 [English translation]; Mariano, Potentiae mdus usus [in Latin: Utilization of the power of the tide].Siena (anno 1438).

[122] E. g. Gibrat, R., The first tidal power station in the world under construction by French industry on the Rance River. French Technical Bulletin 1962, 2, 1-11; Gougenheim, A., The Rance tidal energy installation. J. Inst. Navigation 1967, XX, 3, 229-236; Jones, J. E., The Rance tidal power station. Geography 53, 11, 412-415; Kammerlocher, L., La station maremotrice experimental de

R. H. Charlier, C. W. Finkl, Ocean Energy, DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-77932-2.5, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

St Malo. [in French: the experimental tidal power station of St Malo] Rev. Gen. de I’Electr. 1960, 69, 5, 237-261; Mauboussin, G., Construction de l’usine maremotrice de la Rance. Contribution des essais sur modele reduit a la mise au point d’un mode d’execution des travaux. [in French: Rance tidal power station construction. Contribution of trials on reduced scale model of the work execution mode]. La Houille Blanche-Rev. Int. de l’Eau (4es Journees de I’Hydraulique) 1957, 388-399.

[124] Charlier, R. H. & Menanteau, L., The saga of tide mills. Ren. Sust. En. Rev., 1997, 1, 3, 271-207; Charlier, R. H., Chaineux, M-C. P.& Menanteau, L., Rise and fall of the tide mill. In Morcos, S., Zhu, M., Charlier, R. H. et al. (eds) Ocean sciences bridging the Millennium. Paris, UNESCO & Qingdao, Ocean Press 2004 pp. 314-338.

[125] Bautier, A.-M., Les plus anciennes mentions des anciens moulins hydrauliques et de moulins a vent. Bull. Philolog. & Hist. 1960, 2, 590-592 [in French: the oldest mentions of the old hy­draulic mills and of wind mills]; Charlier, R. H., Tidal energy. New York, London, Melbourne, Van Nostrand-Rheinhold, 1982; Charlier, R. H. & Justus, J. R., Ocean Energies: Environmental, Eco­nomic and Technological Aspects of Alternative Power Sources. Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo, Elsevier Science Publ., 1993 [Oceanography Series]; Charlier, R. H., Ocean alternative en­ergy. The view from China: small is beautiful. Ren. Sust. Energy Rev. 2001, 3, 3, 7-15; Ch’in Hsu – Ts’ung, The building of the Shamen TPP. Tien Chi-Ju Tung – Hsin 1958, 9, 52-56; Zu-Tian, G., The development of tidal resources in China: the tidal power experimental station of Jiangxca and its Nr 1 and Nr 2 bi-directional tidal water turbine. In Krock, H. J. (ed.) “Ocean energy recovery" Proc. Int. Conf. ICOER 1989. Amer. Soc. Civ. Eng., Ocean Energy Div. Pacific Int. Center for High Technology Research, University of Hawaii-Manoa pp. 157-166.

[126] See fn 13, Barreau.

[127] Gorlov, A. M., 1979 Some new conceptions in the approach to harnessing tidal energy. Proc. 2nd Miami Int. Conf. OnAltern. Energy Sources, pp. 1171-1195.

[128] Tuttel, J., Watermolens, eeuwig oud en eeuwigbloeiend. Aard en Kosmos, 1978, 10, 8-9 [in Dutch: water mills, eons old and ever blossoming].

[129] Charlier, R. H., 2003, Co-generation from the tides. A review: Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 7, 3, 187-213.

[130] Charlier, R. H., 2004, A sleeper awakes: power from tidal currents: Renew. & Sustain. Energy Rev. 8.

[131] Whether the Rance River plant was the first is sometimes challenged, but it certainly was the first of large dimension and of high production. A tidal power station functioned in the latter part of the 19th century in Boston (Massachusetts, USA) harbor [cf. H. Creek, 1952, Tide mill near Boston: Civil Engineering 22, 840-841]. Another was at work near Husum, Germany but was dismantled when World War I started (1914). Some Chinese authors have claimed that a tidal power station existed in China prior to the construction of the Rance River station [Ch’in Hsu-Ts’ung, 1958, The building of the Shamen TPP: Tien Chi-Ju Tung-Hsin 9, 52-56].

[132] SOGREAH=Societe Grenobloise d’Applications Hydrauliques.

[133] Wickert, G., Tidal power. Water Power, 1956, 8, 6, 22l-225; Wickert, G., Tidal power. Water Power, 8, 7, 259-263; Wilson, E. M., Energy from the tides. Science Journal, 1965, 1, 5, 50-56.

[134] The Rance and Russian plants use bulb turbines, the Canadians installed Straflo types. Cf. Berns[h]tein, L. B., Kislogubsk: a small station generating great expectations. Water Power, 1974, 26, 5, 172-177; Charlier, R. H., Tidal Energy. New York, Van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1982, pp. 114-119; De Lory, R. P., Prototype tidal power plant achieves 99% availability. Sulzer Techn. Rev., 1989, 1, 3-8; De Lory, R. P., The Annapolis tidal generating station. 3rd Int. Symp. Wave, Tidal, OTEC and small scale hydro energy, 1986, III, 125-132; Douma, A. & Stewart, G. D., An­napolis Straflo turbine will demonstrate Bay of Fundy tidal power concept. Modern Power Systems, 1981, 1, 53-57; Gibrat, R., L’usine maremotrice de la Rance. Rev. Franc:. de l’Energie, 1965 (Num. d’avril) [in French: The Rance tidal power station].

[135] Andre, H., Ten years of experience at the “La Rance” tidal power plant. Ocean Manag., 1978, 4, 2-4, 165-178; Banal, M. and Bichon, A., Tidal energy in France—The Rance River tidal power station—Some results after 15 years of operation. J. Inst. Energy, 1982, 55, 423, 86-91; Barreau, M., 30th anniversary of the Rance tidal power station: La Houille Blanche-Rev. Int. de l’Eau 1997, 52, 3, 13; Bonnefille, R. & Thielheim, K. O. Tidal power stations. 1982 in Pri­mary energy. Present status and future perspectives, Heidelberg, Springer Verlag pp. 319-334; Booda, L. L., River Rance tidal-power plant nears 20 years in operation. Sea Techn. 1985, 26, 9, 22; Charlier, R. H., French power from the English channel. Habitat, 1970, XIII, 4, 32-33; Charlier, R. H.,Comments to “Power from the tides” by C. Lebarbier. Nav. Eng. J., 1975, 87, 3, 58-59; Charlier, R. H., Re-invention or aggiornamento? Tidal power at 30 years. Ren. Sust. Energy Rev. 1997,1, 4,271-289; Cotillon, J., La Rance: six years of operating a tidal power plant in France. Water Power, 1974, 26, 10, 314-322; Wilson, E., Energy from the sea—Tidal power. Underwa­ter J. & Infor. Bull. 1973, 5, 4, 175-186; Hillairet, F., Vingt ans apres. La Rance. Une experience maremotrice. La Houille Blanche-Rev. Intern. de l’Eau, 1984, 8, 571-582 [in French: Twenty years later. The Rance. A tidal power experience]; Hillairet P. & Weisrock, G., Concrete benefits from op­erational tidal power station. Int. Symp. Wave, Tidal, OTEC and small scale hydro energy[Brighton, UK],1986, III, paper nbr 13, 165-177; Lebarbier, C. H., Power from tides: the Rance tidal power station. Nav. Eng. J., 1975, 83, 2, 57-7l; Lebarbier, C. H.,Power from the tides. Discussion. Nav. Eng. J., 1975, 87, 3, 52-56; Retiere, C., Bonnot-Courtois, C., LeMao, F. & Desroy, N., Ecological status of the Rance River Basin afterv 30 years of operation of a tidal power plant. La Houille Blanche. Rev. Int. de l’Eau, 1997, 52, 3, 106-107.

[136] See fn 6, 12 and 13.

[137] Charlier, R. H., Co-generation from the tides. A review. Ren. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2004, 7, 3, 183-213.

[138] Ministere de l’lndustrie et de la Recherche [France], L’usine maremotrice des Chausey. In La production d’Electricite d’origine hydraulique. Rapport de la Commission de la production hy – draulique et maremotrice: Paris, La Documentation Francaise [Dossiers de l’Energie 1976, 9, IV, 41-49]. [in French: Ministry of Industry and Research of France. The tidal power station of the Chausey {Islands}. In The production of electricity of hydraulic origin. Report of the Commission of hydraulic and tide generated energy]; see also R. Bonnefille et al. fn 13.

[139] Barnier, L., Power from the tide. Geographical Magazine, 1968, 50, 1118-1125.

[140] French Government electricity authority. The “State” company was privatized in 2006.

[141] Charlier, R. H. & Lonhienne, T., The management of eutrophicated waters. In Schramm, W. & Nienhuis, P. H. (eds) Marine benthic vegetation. Recent changes and the effects of eutrophica­tion [Ecological Studies Nr 123]. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, Springer Verlag 1996, pp 45-78; Charlier, R. H. & Morand, P., Macroalgal population explosion and water purification. A survey. Int. J. Envir. St. 2003,60,1 — 13; Morand, P., Briand, X. & Charlier, R. H., Anaerobic digestion of Ulva Sp.3. Liquefaction juices extracted by pressing and technico-economic budget. J. Appl. Phycol. 2006.

[142] Charlier, R. H. and Menanteau, L., The saga of tide mills: Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2000.1, 3, 1-44; Charlier, R. H., Menanteau, L. and Chaineux, M.-C. P. The rise and fall of the tide mill. Ocean Sciences Bridging the Millennium. Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Hist. Oceanog. (Qingdao; PRC, Aug. 1998) 2005, Paris, UNESCO – and Qingdao, Ocean Press [1st Inst. of Oceanogr.].

[143] Charlier, R. H., A sleeper awakes: power from tidal currents. Ren. Sust. Energy Rev., 2004, 8, 7-17.

[144] Wailes, R., Tide mills in England and Wales: Jun. Inst. Eng.-J. & Record of Transact. 1941, 51, 91-114.

[145] Fay, J. A., Design principles of horizontal-axis tidal current turbines. Proc. Int. Conf. “New Ap­proaches ”, 1982, No pp. nb.; Kato, N. and Ohashi, Y., A study of energy extraction system from

ocean and tidal currents: Proc. Int. Conf. ECOR ’84 & 1st Argent. Ocean Engng Cong. (Buenos Aires), 1984, I, 115-132; Pratte, D. B., Overview of non-conventional current energy conversion

systems: Prof. Int. Conf. “New Approaches ”, 1984, Paper N 4, 1-8; White, P. R.S. et al. A low

head hydro head suitable for small tidal and river applications: Proc. Int. Conf. En. Rural & Island Communities (Inverness, Scotland) no pp. nb. 1984.

[146] Keefer, R. G., Optimized low head approach to tidal energy: Proc. Int. Conf. “New Ap­proaches. ..” op. cit., 1982,. [no pp. nb.].

[147] Heronemus, W. E. et al., On the extraction of kinetic energy from oceanic and tidal river currents: Proc. MacArthur Worksh. Feasib. Extract. UsableE. fr. Florida Curr. (Miami FL), 1974, 138-201; McCormick, M. E., Ocean energy sources (class notes): Los Angeles, U. of Calif. at L. A. 1976, p.23; Morrison, R. E., Energy from ocean currents, in Energy from the ocean, (Library of Congress, Science Policy Research Division-Congress. Res. Serv.) 1982, 95th Congr. Washington, U. S. Gov. Print. Off. pp. 149-173.

[148] Cave, P. R. and Evans, E. M.. Tidal streams and energy supplies in the Channel Islands: Proc. Conf. En. Rural & Island Communities, 1985, no pp. nb.; idem, Tidal energy systems for isolated communities in West, E. (ed.), Alternative energy systems: New York, Pergamon 1984, pp. 9-14.

[149] Cavanagh, J. E., Clarke, J. H. and Price, R., “Ocean energy systems” 1993, in Johansson, T. B., Kelly, H., Reddy, A. K.N. and Williams, P. H., Renewable energy. Sources for fuels and electricity: Washington, Island Press & London, Earthscan Chap. 12 p. 523.

[150] European Union-Joule Project, Exploitation of tidal marine currents (JOU2-CT94-0355/EC-DG XII): Brussels, European Commission. 1996.

[151] Miller, G., Corren, D. and Franceschi, J., Kinetic hydro energy conversion systems study for the New York State resource-Phase I, Final Report: NewYork, Power Authority of NY State 1982[con – tract NYO-82-33/NYU/DAS 82-108]; Miller, G., Corren, D., Franceschi, J. and Armstrong, P., idem-Phase II, Final Report: New York, Port. Author. 1983 [contract idem]; Miller, G., Corren, D. and Armstrong, P., idem-Phase II and Phase III, Model Testing: New York, State Energy Research & Development Authority & Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. 1984 [NYU/DAS 84-127]; Miller, G. et al., idem: Waterpower ‘85-Int. Conf. Hydropower (Las Vegas NV) 1984­1985, 12 pp.;

[152] Anonymous, Underwater windmill: The Energy Daily December 20, 1984, p.2; Anonymous, East River tides to run electrical generator: New York Times Apr. 14, 1985 p.52;

[153] Anonymous, New York plans for hydroplant using kinetic conversion approach: Bur. Nat. Aff. Energy Rep. Jan. 3, 1985, p. 9.

[154] See fn 13.

[155] The Canadian pilot plant in the Bay of Fundy is not considered here as a “Quoddy” scheme but rather as a Bay of Fundy plant.

[156] It would have been one tenth of the investment needed half a century later. The one hundredth figure is estimated on the current devalued US dollar.

[157] 1924, 1926, 1928 and 1933.

[158] The village has totally “disappeared” and the only trace left, in 1970, is a Federal Government owned tract of land.

[159] De Rouville, A., 1957, General report on the utilisation of the tidal mechanical energy: LaHouille Blanche-Rev. Intern. de l’Eau II, 435-455.

[160] Loschacoff, M. J., 1957, Un aprovechamiento mareomotriz en la peninsula de Valdes: Buenos Aires, La Ingeniera.

[161] Cf. Kislaya TPP; Delta Plan (Netherlands).

[162] Lemoine, Duport, Preismann, LeMenestrel, Matringe, & Playoust, 1959, Usina mareomotriz del Golfo San Jose. Anteproyecto: Grenoble, SOGREAH.

[163] Anonymous, 1975, El aaprovechamiento mareomotriz de la Peninsula Valdes: Chubut, Agua y Energia Electrica—Jefatura de Estudios y Proyectos Zona Patagonica.

[164] Bernshtein. L. B., 1965, Tidal energy for electric power plants—ГИДРОЕНЕРГОПРОЕКГ: Moscow, State Publishing House. [in Russian but translated by Israel Program for Scientific Trans­lation]; Charlier, R. H., 1982, Tidal energy: New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold.

[165] sakai@iri. titech. ac. jp;http://www. nr. titech. ac. jp~rshimada/

[166] Wu Guihi, 2006, Development status and policy of renewable energy in China: Renewable Energy 2006, Proceedings of NEDO [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization] Special Session (Chiba, Japan) paper Nbr 2, 10 pp, no pp. numbers.

[167] Cited in Renewable Energy World 8, 5, 37 (2005).

[168] http://www. emagazine. com/view/72920

[169] http://www. planetark. com/dailynewsstory. cfm/newsid/34044/story. htm

[170] See tidal current power, Chap. 8.

[171] Synthetic piping material.

[172] See shastings@woodshedtechnologies. com. au ; www. woodshedtechnologies. com. au

[173] See www. lloydenergy. com

[174] See www. smec. com. au

[175] Refer to Dr G. E. Summer 17/42 Macedonia Street, North Haven, 5018 State of South Australia, Australia.

[176] Claude, G., 1957, Ma vie etmes inventions, Paris, Masson.

[177] Takenouchi, K., Okuma, K., Furukawa, A. and Setoguchi, T., 2006, On applicability of recipro­cating flow turbines developed for wave power to tidal power conversion: Renewable energy 31,2, 209-233; Setoguchi, T., Shiomi, N. and Kaneko, K., 2004, Development of a two-way diffuser for fluid energy conversion system: Renewable energy 29, 10, 1757-1771.

[178] Anonymous, 2003, Gas know-how helps harness tidal power: Int. Gas Engng Manag. 43, 4, 43.

[179] Torii, T., Ockubo, H., Yamana, M., Seki, K. and Sekita, K., 2006, A study of straight-wing vertical-axis hydro-turbine generation system in ocean environment: Abstr. & Proceed. Renew. Energy 2006 [Makuhari Messe, Chiba, Japan] Abstr. p.47, Proceed. pp. 1462-1466.

[180] Garrett, C. and Cummins, P., 2004, Generating power from tidal currents: J. Waterw., Ports, Coasts. OceanEngng-ASCE 130,3, 114-118.

[181] Kyozuka, Y., Okawa, K. and Wakahama, H., 2006, Tidal current power generation making use of a bridge pier: Abstr. & Proc. Renew. Energy 2006 {Chiba, Japan October 9-13, 2006] Abstr. p. 46, Proc. 1468-1372.

[182] De la Torre, S. and Conjo, A. J., 2005, Optimal self-scheduling of a tidal power plant: J. Electr. Engng-ASCE 131, 1,26-51.

[183] http://www. planetark. com/dailynewsstory. cfm/newsid/34044/story. htm

[184] High voltage direct current.

[185] Interconnected Electric Power Systems.

[186] Anonymous, 2004, Plugging into the ocean: Machine Design Int.: 76, 18, 82-90.

[187] Russell, E., 2004, Could the tide be turning? : Int. Pow. Gener. [UK] 27, 3, 24-27; Neil, J., Hassard, J. and Jones, A. T., 2003, Tidal power for San Francisco: Oceans 2004, 1, 7-9.

[188] Liu, G-c., Wang, S-d., Song, S-j., Zu, Y-j., Sun, L., 2004, Corrosion and control of sea water circulation system of Huaneng Dandong Power Plant: Electric Power 37, 2, 87-88.

[189] Wood, J., 2005, Marine renewables face paperwork barrier: IEE Review 51, 4, 26-27.

[190] Anonymous, 2003, Ocean energy development. Obstacles to commercialization: Ocean 2003 4, 2278-2283.

[191] Grad, P, 2004, Changing tide of power generation: Eng. Australia 76, 11, 51-52.; Gross, R., 2004, Technologies and innovations for system change in the UK: status, prospects and system requirements of some leading renewable energy options: Energy Policy 32, 17, 1905-1919; Anonymous, 2003, Ocean energy development. Obstacles to commercialization: Oceans 2003. Celebrating the past. Teaming toward the future 4, 2278-2283.

[192] Mueller, M. A. and Baker, N. J., 2005, Direct drive electrical take-off for offshore marine energy converters: Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Assn, J. Power Energy [UK] 219, 3, 223-234.

[193] Flin, D., 2005, Sink or swim: Power Eng. 19, 3, 32-35; Fox, P., 2004, Designs on tidal turbines: Power Engineer18, 4, 32-33; Gorlov, A. M., 2003, The helical turbine and its applications for tidal and wave power : Oceans 2003, 4, 1996.

[194] Co-ordinated Action on Ocean Energy.

Passages from this chapter are excerpted from an article that appeared in Renewable and Sus­tainable Energy Reviews. Elsevier Science, the publishers of the periodical have kindly granted permission to reprint them.

[196] Charlier, R. H., 2002, Resurgimento or Aggiorrnamento? Tidal power at 30 years: Renew. Sustain. En. Rev. I, 4, 271-289.

2 Charlier, R. H., 2003, Sustainable co-generation from the tides. A bibliography: Renew. Sustain. En. Rev. 7, 4, 189 213 [Part 3];Charlier, R. H. and Menanteau, L., 2000, The saga of tide mills: Renew. Sustain. En. Rev. 1, 3, 171-207; Charlier, R. H., Menanteau, L. and Chaineux, M.-C. P.; 2003, The rise and fall of the tide mill: Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Hist. Oceanog. (Qingdao; PRC, August 1998), publ. by UNESCO-Paris and 1st Inst. of Oceanogr. Qingdao-PRC. Part III, chapt. 39.

3 Charlier, R. H., 2001, The view from China—Small is beautiful. Renew. Sustain. En. Rev. 5, 3, 403-409.

4 Charlier, R. H. and Menanteau, L., 2000, The saga of tide mills: Renew. Sustain. En. Rev. 1, 3, 1-44; Charlier, R. H., Menanteau, L. and Chaineux, M.-C. P.; 2003, The rise and fall of the tide mill: Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Hist. Oceanog. (Qingdao; PRC, Aug. 1998), publ. by UNESCO-Paris and 1st Inst. of Oceanogr. Qingdao-PRC. Part III, Chapt. 39.

5 See fn 4; Wailes, R., 1941, Tide mills in England and Wales: Jun. Inst. Eng.-J. & Record of Transact. 51, 91-114.

R. H. Charlier, C. W. Finkl, Ocean Energy, DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-77932-2.8, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

[197] Fay, J. A., 1982, Design principles of horizontal-axis tidal current turbines. Proc. Int. Conf. “New

Approaches__ " No pp. nb.; Kato, N. and Ohashi, Y., 1984, A study of energy extraction sys­

tem from ocean and tidal currents: Proc. Int. Conf. ECOR ’84 & 1st Argent. Ocean Engng Cong. (Buenos Aires 1984) I, 115-132; Pratte, D. B., 1982, Overview of non-conventional current energy

conversion systems: Prof. Int. Conf. “New Approaches " Paper No 4, 1-8; White, P. R.S. et al.

A low head hydro head suitable for small tidal and river applications: Proc. Int. Conf. En. Rural & Island Communities (Inverness, Scotland) no pp. nb.

[198] Keefer, R. G., 1982, Optimized low head approach to tidal energy: Prof. Int. Conf. “New Ap­proaches. .." op. cit. [no pp. nb.].

[199] Heronemus, W. E. et al., 1974, On the extraction of kinetic energy from oceanic and tidal river currents: Proc. MacArthur Worksh. Feasib. Extract. Usable E. fr. Florida Curr. (Miami FL) 138-201; McCormick, M. E., 1976, Ocean energy sources (class notes): Los Angeles, U. of Calif. at L. A. p.23; Morrison, R. E., 1978, Energy from ocean currents, in Energy from the ocean, (Library of Congress, Science Policy Research Division-Congress. Res. Serv.) 95th Congr. Washington, U. S. Gov. Print. Off. pp. 149-173.

[200] Cave, P. R. and Evans, E. M., 1985, Tidal streams and energy supplies in the Channel Islands: Proc. Conf. En. Rural & Island Communities no pp. nb.; idem, 1984, Tidal energy systems for isolated communities in West, E. (ed.), Alternative energy systems: New York, Pergamon pp. 9-14.

[201] Cavanagh, J. E., Clarke, J. H. and Price, R., 1993, “Ocean energy systems” in Johansson, T. B., Kelly, H., Reddy, A. K.N. and Williams, P. H., Renewable energy. Sources for fuels and electricity: Washington, Island Press & London, Earthscan Chap. 12 p. 523.

[202] European Union-Joule Project, 1996, Exploitation of tidal marine currents (JOU2-CT94- 0355/EC-DG XII): Brussels, European Commission.

[203] Carstens, T. A., 1998, A global survey of tidal stream energy: Oslo-Norway, SINTEF.

[204] Seefn. 15.

[205] Tascon, I. G., 1987, Fabricas hidraulicas espanolas: Madrid, Minist. Obr. Publ. P. 225.

[206] Musgrove, R, 1979, Tidal and river current energy systems: Proc. Conf. “Future Energy Con­cepts”, Inst. Elec. Eng. [London], IEEE Conf. Publication No 17, 114-117.

[207] A project that examined a scheme to tap the Florida Current.

[208] Radkey, R. and Hibbs, B. D., 1981, Definition of cost effective river turbine design. Final report for the period September 30, 1980-December 31, 1981. AeroVironment; Inc.: Washington DC, Department of Energy (DES82010972).

[209] Davis, C. V. and Swan, A. H., 1982, Extracting energy from river and tidal currents using open and ducted vertical axis turbines. Model tests and prototype design: Int. Conf. “New Approaches to Tidal Power” Proc. (Bedford Inst. Oceranog., Dartmouth, NS) [no pp. nb.]; Davis, B. and Swan, D., 1983, Vertical axis turbine economics for river and estuaries in modern power systems: Montreal, Nova Energy Ltd.

[210] see fn 17; Pratte, see fn 6; Davis and Swan see fn 17.

[211] See fn 17.

[212] idem.

[213] Miller, G., Corren, D. and Franceschi, J., 1982, Kinetic hydro energy conversion systems study for the New York State resource-Phase I, Final Report: New York, Power Authority of NY State [contract NYO-82-33/NYU/DAS 82-108]; Miller, G., Corren, D., Franceschi, J. and Armstrong, P., 1983, idem-Phase II, Final Report: New York, Pt. Auth. [contract idem]; Miller, G., Corren, D. and Armstrong, P., 1984, idem-Phase II and Phase III, Model Testing: New York, State Energy Research & Development Authority & Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. [NYU/DAS 84-127]; Miller, G. et al., 1984-1985, idem: Waterpower ‘85-Int. Conf. Hydropower (Las Vegas NV) 12 pp.; Anon., 1984, Underwater windmill: The Energy Daily Dec. 20, 1984, p.2; Anonym., 1985, East River tides to run electrical generator: New York Times Apr. 14, 1985 p.52; Anon., 1985, New York plans for hydroplant using kinetic conversion approach: Bur. Nat. Aff. Energy Rep. Jan. 3, 1985, p.9.

[214] Kinetic hydro energy conversion systems.

[215] In terms of 1980-$.

[216] In his novel “Altneuland”.

[217] Dolan, R., 1984, The Dead Sea-Mediterranean Canal project: European Scientific Notes 38, 5, 262-264; Kaplan, R. D., 1981, New Canal will link Mediterranean and Dead Sea: The Christian Monitor April 13, p.5.

[218] Baker, A. C. and Wishart, S. J., 1986, Tidal power for small estuaries: 3rdInt: Symp. Wave, Tidal, OTEC & Small Scale Hydro Energy “Water for Energy”, Proc. Paper No 9, 115-123; Wishart, S. J., 1981, A preliminary survey of tidal energy from 5 UK estuaries: Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Wave & Tidal Energy no pp. nb.

[219] Anonymous, 1985, Mersey Barrage, exploratory model tests: London, Hydraulics Research Ltd; Carr, G. R., 1986, Studies of a tidal power barrage on the river Mersey: Proc. 3rd Int. Wave, Tidal… Energy: Paper No 31, 1-25.

[220] Grant, A. D., 1981, Power generation from tidal flows for navigation buoys: 2ndInt. Symp. Wave, Tidal, OTEC…. Energy Proc. 117-128.

[221] Yen, J. T. and Isaacs, J., 1978, Dynamic dam for harnessing ocean and river currents, and tidal power: Proc. Ann. Mar. Technol. Soc./I. E.E. E. Comb. Conf. “Ocean ‘78"-“The Ocean Challenge" IV, 582-584.

[222] Fraenkel, P., 2002, Energy from the oceans ready to go on-stream: Renew. En. World 8-2002, 223-227.

[223] European Union (IT Power & Tecnomare), 2000, Non-nuclear energy Joule II Project results: Brussels, European Commission DG Sci (Rep. EUR-15683-EN).

[224] European Union, 1996-2002, World’s first grid-connected tidal current turbine: Kassel, Univer­sity of Kassel ISET.

[225] ACWG = Active Column Water Generator.

[226] European Commission/Commission Europeenne—Direction Generale XVII, 1995, Feasibil­ity study of tidal cureent power generation for coastal waters, Orkney and Shetland—Dossier 4/1040/92-41 : Brussels, European Union—European Commission.

[227] Exchange rate of May 2003.

[228] MacNaughton, D. et al., 1993, Tidal stream turbine development. IEE Conf. No 385(London) Abstr.

[229] Bryden, I.; 2002, The future of tidal current power: Oceans of Change Conf.—UK National Maritime Museum (30 October-November 1, 2002) Abstr.: 4-5.

[230] Shaw, T. L., 1979, Environmental effects study of a Severn Estuary tidal power station: Strath­clyde, The University.

R. H. Charlier, C. W. Finkl, Ocean Energy, DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-77932-2.9, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

[231] 12 m east to west, three rows of two turbines each, 30 m apart; water depth 9 m.

[232] The general topic of economics has been discussed in greater detail in Charlier (1982, Tidal Energy, op. cit.).

[233] Some articles and books in German, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian or Dutch are similarly listed. Not to overlook Galician, Flemish, Catalan, etc. Where Chinese and Japanese language works are concerned, the titles have mostly been translated in English and a very few have had the original language title transliterated.

[234] See General Bibliography for the works mentioned herein.

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