# Multicriteria Sustainability Assessment

The multicriteria sustainability assessment based on ASPID methodology {Analysis and Synthesis of Index at Information Deficiency) [5, 6] of the energy power system under consideration is performed. Used methodology is based on the system of stochastic model of uncertainty, enabling to obtain the assessment from of various supporting systems by computer, as well as enabling to obtain various normalization indexes by using Non­numeric (ordinal), Non-exact (interval) and Non-complete information (NNN- information), obtained from sources of various reliability and probability. The multicriteria analysis is based on the determination of sustainability indicators, described in previous chapter, and specific criteria, adopted by weighting factors, and which are being agglomerated into General sustainability indices. General indices are formed through the following procedure:

1. Formation of vectors x = (x, xm) of all input attributes (characteristics) which are

necessary for full evaluation of quality of the options under considerations; in the work, the attributes are expressed by 4 group of indicators: Resource Indicator, Environment Indicators, Social Indicators and Economic Indicators.

2. Formation of vectors of specific criteria q = {qx,….. ,q m ), by which input attributes

(indicators) x,,…,xm are to be evaluated.

3. Introducing of weighting factors, by which multicriteria sustainability assessment of the options under consideration is expressed by means of additive aggregate function, or sintetized function given by relation (1):

Q+(q;w) = E w( qi (1)

4. Selection of vectors w = (vq….. Rm), vq > 0, wx+ ,…wm= 1, i. e. weighting factors. In

praxis, vectors w = (wb…, wm) often can not be exactly determined due to information deficiency. In such a case, method of randomization is used, which enables the values of weighting factors for each considered case to be determined.

5. As final result of this procedure, a list of priority of options under consideration at defined criteria is obtained.

The multicriteria assessment taking into account all criteria at the same time, where the different criteria are adopted by respective weighting factors, gives a realistic and reliable sustainability rating of the options under consideration for a lifetime.

 1… Object 0.00 jo. to |0.a> |o.30 10.40 [0.50 j 0.60 10.70 ]o.8D |o.80 f t.00 1 RI 2 El-1 3 Ecl-2 4 SI
 Fig. 4. Weighting factors for case Ecl2 > EI2= SI = RI within multicriteria assessment.

Considering the case when the sustainability assessment criteria is based on the economic indicator with domination of investment indicator is preferable in reference to the other indicators, the Fig. 4, it can be noticed that option with the highest rating of the sustainability index is option 5-Reconstruction of hydro power plant. Option 2- Reconstruction of coal-based unit in cogeneration regime-is ranked on third place in this case, although this option according to the single criteria assessment is preferable option.

 < Object 0.00 jo. to j 0.20 |o.30 10.40 |o.5D |o.60 |o.7B [o.8D jo.90 |t. D0 5 Opcija 5 RHE 4 Opcija 4 NKGPPK : – ……….. ………… 1 і і —…………………………………. : і 2 Opcija 2 RTPUK0 1 Opcija 1 RTPUK 8 Opcija 8 PB ■ ; I : —…………………………………………. 4………………. і …….. і……. ‘ 3 Opcija 3 NTPUFSKO 7 Opcija 7 VE 6 Opcija 6 SP
 Fig. 5. General indices for the case EcI2 > EI2 = SI = RI within multicriteria assessment.

Additionally, in the case when economic indicator with the domination of the indicator of investment cost, have an advantage in reference to the other indicators, and when the remained indicators are not equal, see Fig. 6, the option 2 falls down on 4th place in the list of priority, under influence of weighting factors of the other indicators, Fig. 7.

 1…. …… Object 0.00 |o. m |o.20 |o.30 ]o.40 ^0.50 jo. eo ] 0.70 ]o. so |o. eo ] 1.00 | 1 RI 2 El 2 3 Eel 2 4 SI
 Fig. 6. Weighting factors for case Ecl2> RI > EI2 > SI within multicriteria assessment.

 1 Object 0.00 |o.!0 10.20 |o.30 |o,40 10,50 |o.6D 10.70 |o,80 |o.9D | 5 Opzija 5 – RHE і : : ; ; ; ; : : 4 Opcija 4 – NKOPPK шшфт і : 8 Opcija 8 – PB ■ ………………… ~ "і………. ;…………….. і………. ;. ■…. :……… ;…….. 1 2 Opcija 2 – RTPUKO 1 Opcija 1 – RTPUK 7 Opcija 7 – VE 6 Opcija 6 – SP 3 Opcija 3-NTPUFSKO і ; —Н» ■■■■■:■
 Fig. 7. General indices for the case ЕсЬ > RI > ЕЬ > SI within multicriteria assessment.

2. Conclusions

Most of the models for decision-making for the adoption of power system option are based on single criterion assessment. Presently the sustainability assessment of power system is needed, the models are being advanced and sustainability multicriteria assessment of power system is adapted. However, lack of information doesn’t enable us to obtain a clear assessment of quality of power system option.

One of prospective methods to estimate sustainability of the energy system is multicritaeria assessment of sustainability based on the analysis and synthesis of indexes under deficiency of information or ASPID methodology. This methodology is based on the stochastic model of uncertainty, and the assessment from of various supporting systems, to obtain various normalization indexes by using Non-numeric (ordinal), and Non-complete information (NNN-information) obtained from sources of various reliability and probability.

Multicriteria sustainability assessment of various energy systems is based on definition of following indicators: resource indicators, environment indicators, social indicators and economic indicators, including also the weight factors.

In this paper, the multicriteria assessment of selected options of the energy power system of the Public Enterprise Elektroprivreda of Bosnia and Herzegovina is performed, based on the real and actual example of increasing the energy power system by new power capacity.

Through the analysis of multicriteria assessment of selected options, the decision­makers could be enabled to form opinion related to the selection of an optimum option based on the sustainability assessment.

[1] Introduction

Production of MSW is an inevitable consequence of human activities. The generated amount is continuously increasing following trends in development of economies and population. Sustainable waste management requires a good integrated waste management system and government policies that encourage waste prevention, reuse and both materials and thermal recycling. Eventually, landfills will only be used for stabilised materials. MSW incineration represents a considerable potential for reduction in reactivity of any residual landfilled material on one side and potential energy source on another. Power generated from waste could be a significant contribution to the reduction in overall emissions and an alternative to displace energy produced from fossil fuels.

In the present paper the authors focus on the potential of MSW incineration and its implementation to energy system for isolated communities such as islands. Island communities have several particular characteristics that considerably influence their energy and sustainable waste management options.