F. BEGIC (I), A. KAZAGIC (1), N. H. AFGAN[10]
(I> JP Elektroprivreda BiH, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, (2> Institute Superior Tecnico,

Lisbon, Portugal

The limited reserves of fossil fuels and the need for environmentally friendly electricity generation, requires investigation of possibilities for the utilization of renewable resources in Bosnia and Herzegovina. One of the possible renewable sources is wind energy. The research of potential utilization of wind energy in Bosnia and Herzegovina presently is being carried out. As a part of the research, some locations are investigated using knowledge of atmosphere physics and meteorological conditions for given locations. The research is aimed to create basis for possible utilization of wind energy for electricity generation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, through the assessment of meteorological, technical, technological, economical, social, and environmental aspects of wind energy utilization at selected locations.

The research comprises the following:

• Specification of decentralized wind energy systems – potential share and demand;

• Data collection of the direction, frequency and velocity of wind at the selected macro locations: in Sarajevo area (Mountain Bjelasnica and settlement Butmir) and in Mostar area (Mountain Velez);

• Selecting the potential micro-locations for installing the wind turbines field;

• Selection of the type and construction of the wind turbines;

• Sustainability assessment of electricity generation from wind turbines on the base of precisely defined criteria and sustainability indicators – Multi-criteria Sustainability Assessment;

• Optimization of the wind energy systems.

The investigation is especially interesting for similar – prevailing mountain regions, and could answer whether utilization of wind energy for electricity generation in such regions is feasible. In the paper, investigation on wind characteristics in Sarajevo area is presented, as well as sustainability assessment of wind energy utilization being used within the research.

1. Introduction

In the past several years, a continuous growing of the electricity consumption and generation in Bosnia and Herzegovina can be noticed. Among the current process of reconstruction of the electric power system in Bosnia and Herzegovina, common for countries in transition, refurbishment of the existing power plants, including investment in environment protection, is a process that is expected to continue. In the last five years, thanks to intensive efforts in this direction, electricity supply has been improved. However, assessments of electricity consumption in domain of JP Elektroprivreda BiH have shown that the growing of electricity consumption in the next period (till year 2020) should continue. Consequently, extending of energy power system by additional 100 MW of installed capacity is expected to be realised in close future. Due to unsatisfied the overall environmental issue, preferably high carbon dioxide emission, extending of energy system by renewable resources is optioned as well. In that sense, research on possibilities of utilisation of wind energy in Bosnia and Herzegovina, that has currently being carried out, is of fundamental significance [1,2,3,4].

presented here. Charts in Figs. 1 and 2 show frequencies and velocities of wind in respective directions for locations of mountain Bjelasnica and settlement Butmir, [2,3]. It can be seen that the average wind velocity for Butmir is about 2 m/s, so this macro location is rejected from further evaluation. However, the wind velocity for area of mountain Bjelasnica is potentially very convenient for installing the wind turbines, especially for directions NE-SW and N – S.


Fig. 1. Wind frequencies in respective directions in regions of Bjelasnica and Butmir sites.


Fig. 2. Wind velocities in respective directions for regions of mountain Bjelasnica and settlement Butmir. The wind velocity at different altitudes can be estimated by relation (1):




v wind velocity in Bjelasnica site v0 wind velocity in Butmir site H altitude of top of Bjelasnica

Ho altitude of settlement Butmir

a average value of 4 prevailing directions

Results of this calculation are given in Fig. 3.


Fig. 3. Estimated wind velocities for different altitudes.

On the base of presented data, two micro locations are selected for possible installing the wind turbines in Sarajevo area; Top of Mountain Bjelasnica and Lisicija Glava, see Table 1. [11]

Table 1. Selected locations for installing the wind turbines.

1. Top of B jelasnica

2. Lisicija Glava

Average velocity

12 m/s

10 m/s


2067 m A. S.

1762 m A. S.

Maximal power coefficient



Rotor diameter

40 m

40 m


451 kW

451 kW

Wind turbo-generator power

600 kW

600 kW

The aspects considered in the analysis include consumption of resources, environmental issue, social aspect and economic aspect for all options under consideration.

Option of wind turbines is compared against other seven options of energy systems for electricity generation of various sources. In this consideration, it is supposed that 7875 GWh of electricity is to be provided in projected lifetime of 15 years for all options under consideration.

In calculation of sustainability indicators for wind turbines, in order to get realistic and reliable results, it is assuemd that materials for the wind turbines construction are produced by the electricity generated in a 100 MW pulvurised coal based power station – an option under consideration that has a low efficiency (heat consumption of 10673 kJ/kWh or efficiency of 33%) and strong environment impacts.

It is calculated that 438 units of 600 kW wind turbines are to be installed to provide aimed electricity generation of 7875 GWh over period of 15 years. Basic data related to wind energy utilisation from this analysis are given in Table 2. At the same time, data from this table presents input data for calculation of sustainability indicators of wind based electricity generation.

Table 2. Data on wind energy utilization based on required electricity production.

И bid energy utilisation 1

Required electricity production

7 875 GWh

Life time

15 years

Annual Electricity production

525 GWh/a

Annual operation time

2000 h/a

Total Power installed

262 500 kW

Power installed per unit

600 kW

Number of units


Used area

1000 m2/GWh

Zauzetost zemljista

7,9 x 105 m2/kW


25 %

Assumed energy costs

8 cent/kWh

Investment costs

1050 EUR/kW

О & M costs

1,4 cent/kWh

Total О & M costs

7 350 000 EUR/god.