The mCCHP-SE-RES System Data

Nicolae Badea

The solution of the access in real time by the use of the web in order to process data allows the mCCHP installation to be monitored, unifying in this way the func­tionality of the remote control with the applicability of the WEB system. The developed application is easy to be configured and easily accessed; it can be visualized and managed to a certain extent in real time by the use of the Internet browser, like any other WEB application, with any type of connection and from any location. The use of the application, the control of the data and of the installation monitoring, allows for data to be stored in a database on a dedicated server, having the ability to connect through an ID and a password.

The software application together with the touch screen terminal from the res­idence is able to collect, validate, and monitor the data transfer in real time, depending on the rules and access rights configured in the data base.

Ways of management and monitoring:

• Online, when all the monitoring operations managed by the program and applied to the open “web terminals” are validated in real time through the control of the access politics registered in the database.

• Off-line, when the access politics created in the program are automatically transmitted to the operator display and to the management station inside the house. In this case, the connection to the application is no longer possible through a web browser, as it is made directly from the house.

• Mixed, when the system normally works online, but, due to the transfer flexi­bility of the data through the application’s access politics, it allows the correct

functioning of the system even when the connection to the server is missing.

The data will be synchronized automatically when the connection is restored.

The functions of transmitting and collecting the data from the process, using the real time WEB application by the use of the access control terminal is optimized by a management window that allows the configuration of the process and personal­ization of the functions. In order to have a more complex picture of the whole installation, or even of a single equipment, there was introduced a second access level, the private one. Through the private access, one can see data in the process, but from this access level and from the public one, nobody can intervene in the system or modify data.

The monitoring and protection system, through the web access, is made up of a series of equipments freely programmable for management and automation for the whole range of the application in the building and the mCCHP system. Together with the system functions such as: the alarm management, the time programmers, and the trend registration, combined with the sophisticated command functions, the monitoring and protection system on WEB access represents a versatile asset of the building. The innovative web technology, the large databases as well as the open communication make this to be an advanced application.

Appendix 1: Experimental System Pictures

Picture 1 Adsorption chiller and pellets boiler

Picture 2 Chiler pumps station

Picture 3 Pellet boiler and Stirling engine

Picture 4 Experimental house


1. https://www. google. ro/maps/preview? source=newuser-ws

2. SR 4839:1997 Heating system—Number DD

3. STAS 6648/2—Ventilation and air conditioning. External climatic parameters (in Romanian)

4. SR 1907-1-1997. Calculation prescriptions. (in Romanian)

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8. http://www. solarshop-europe. net/product_info. php? products_id=1381

9. http://www. solarlinerenovables. com/gb/batteries/671-bateria-monoblock-solar-12v-fs. html#/ modelo-fs_250

10. http://www. solar-electric. com/xaxwmp60amps. html

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12. Studer Innotec from Xtender series 4000-48 XTM model. http://www. studer-inno. com/?cat= sine_wave_inverter-chargers&id=432

13. Kindspan Solar data sheet http://www. makethesunwork. com/

14. Biolyt http://www. hoval. co. uk/products/biolyt-wood-pellet-boiler/

15. Sortec http://www. sortech. de/en/adsorption-chiller-aggregates/

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17. http://www. mcchp. ugal. ro/

[1] Article 2, Para’s 1 and 2 of TFEU

“1. When the Treaties confer on the Union exclusive competence in a specific area, only the Union may legislate and adopt legally binding acts, the MS being able to do so themselves only if so empowered by the Union or for the implementation of Union acts.

2. When the Treaties confer on the Union a competence shared with the MS in a specific area, the Union and the MS may legislate and adopt legally binding acts in that area. The MS shall exercise their competence to the extent that the Union has not exercised its competence. The MS shall again exercise their competence to the extent that the Union has decided to cease exercising its competence”.

[2] Article 4, Para. 2 of TFEU

“1. Shared competence between the Union and the MS applies in the following principal areas: (i) energy.

[3] Article 194, Para. 1 of TFEU

“1. In the context of the establishment and functioning of the internal market and with regard for the need to preserve and improve the environment, Union policy on energy shall aim, in a spirit of solidarity between MS, to:

(Footnote 3 continued)

(a) ensure the functioning of the energy market;

(b) ensure security of energy supply in the Union;

(c) promote energy efficiency and energy saving and the development of new and renewable forms of energy; and

(d) promote the interconnection of energy networks”.

[4] The increase in environmental movements in the 1950s brought the concern for “sustainable development”. However, it was not until 1987, when the United Nations released the Brundtland Report (Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future) that the notion of “sustainable development” was firstly framed (“development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”).

[5] Since 1985, the ECJ sought the importance of environmental protection in Procureur de la Republique v. Association de Defense des Bruleurs d’Huiles Usagees (See ECJ Case C-240/83). Sustainable developments was first enshrined in the Maastricht Treaty (1992) and reinforced in the Amsterdam Treaty (1997).

Conerstones: 1990s, 2003, 2006, 2009 and lastly 2012.

[7] The energy markets were dominated by national monopolies that wanted to preserve their status quo. See also Sect. 2.

[8] For instance in France, where the markets were dominated by giants such as EDF and GDF.

[9] The unbundling process started from unbundling Transmission System Operators (TSOs), Distribution System Operators (DSOs) to nowadays unbundling consumers, the last link in the energy chain and engaging them in the internal energy market. This is also the reason for previously starting directly from the downstream market of microgeneration systems.

See http://ec. europa. eu/europe2020/index_en. htm.

[11] The climate and energy package: EU Emissions Trading Directive (EU ETS 2009/29/EC), Effort Sharing Decision (non-ETS 406/2009/EC), Carbon capture and geological storage (CCS 2009/31/EC) and Renewable Energy Sources Directive (RES 2009/28/EC).

[12] See http://ec. europa. eu/clima/policies/roadmap/index_en. htm, www. and http://ec. europa. eu/energy/energy2020/roadmap/index_en. htm.

Article 1.

Article 1.

Preamble 1.

Preamble 51.

Article 37, (1), (j).

Article 37, (1), (p).

Annex I.

Article 36, (d).

[21] Article 1 (Subject matter and scope).

[22] Preamble, Point (1): “Reduce greenhouse gas emissions”, “promoting security of supply” and “promoting technological developments and innovation”.

[23] Preamble, Point (4): “regional and local development, export prospects ” and Preamble, Point (6): “utilisation of local energy sources, increased local security of supply, shorter transport distances and reduced energy transmission losses”.

[24] Preamble, Point (4): “social cohesion and employment opportunities” and Preamble, Point (6): “income sources and creating jobs locally”.

[25] Preamble, Point (43).

[26] Article 13 (Administrative procedures, regulations and codes), (f): “simplified and less burdensome authorisation Procedures, including through simple notification if allowed by the applicable regulatory framework, are established for smaller projects and for decentralised devices for producing energy from renewable sources, where appropriate”.

[27] Defined by Article 2, (k) as “any instrument, scheme or mechanism applied by a Member State or a group of MS, that promotes the use of energy from renewable sources by reducing the cost of that energy, increasing the price at which it can be sold, or increasing, by means of a renewable energy obligation or otherwise, the volume of such energy purchased”.

[28] Article 13, (e): “administrative charges paid by consumers… are transparent and cost related”.

[29] Article 14, (1): “MS shall ensure that information on support measures is made available to all relevant actors, such as consumers.”.

[30] Article 14, (6): “MS. shall develop suitable information, awareness raising, guidance or training programmes in order to inform citizens of the benefits and practicalities of developing and using energy from renewable sources”.

[31] Article 15, (1): “For the purposes of proving to final customers the share or quantity of energy from renewable sources. MS shall ensure that the origin of electricity produced from renewable energy sources can be guaranteed as. in accordance with objective, transparent and non­discriminatory criteria”.

[32] Preamble, Point (3).

[33] Preamble, Point (7).

[34] Article 2, (4) as “the calculated or measured amount of energy needed to meet the energy demand associated with a typical use of the building, which includes, inter alia, energy used for heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water and lighting”.

[35] Article 1, (1).

[36] Article 2, (12): ‘energy performance certificate’ means a certificate recognised by a Member State or by a legal person designated by it, which indicates the energy performance of a building or building unit, calculated according to a methodology adopted in accordance with Article 3.

[37] Article 11, (1).

[38] Article 12, (4).

[39] However, for single building units rented out, MS can defer the application until 31 December 2015 as stated by Article 28, Para. 4.

[40] Article 12, (1), (a).

Article 14, (1).

Article 15, (1).

[43] Article 4, Para. 2: “ MS may decide not to set or apply the requirements referred to in paragraph 1 to the following categories of buildings: (a) buildings officially protected as part of a designated environment or because of their special architectural or historical merit, in so far as compliance with certain minimum energy performance requirements would unacceptably alter their character or appearance; (d) residential buildings which are used or intended to be used for either less than 4 months of the year or, alternatively, for a limited annual time of use and with an expected energy consumption of less than 25 % of what would be the result of all-year use; (e) stand-alone buildings with a total useful floor area of less than 50 m2”.

[44] Article 6, (1).

Article 9, (1).

Article 7, (1).

Article 8, (2).

Article 10, (6) and (7).

Article 11, (4).

Preamble 10.

Article 1, (1).

Article 1, (1).

Preamble 8.

Annex I Part II.

[55] Art 2, Points (38), (39). Preamble 38.

Article 3.

Article 4.

Article 5.

Article 6


[61] Annex XI, (2), (d).

Article 9, Para. 2 (c).

Article 12, Para. 1.

Article 19.

Article 15, Para. 5.

Article 15, Para. 7.

Article 15, Para. 1.

Article 15, Para. 4.

Article 12, Para. 2.

Preamble 49.

Article 20, Para. 4.

Preamble 53.

Article 1.

Preamble 45.

[75] Preamble 1.

[76] Preamble 19.

[77] Preamble 33.

[78] See the incentives promoted by the Energy Efficiency Directive.

[79] “Efficiency is doing the things right; effectiveness is doing the right things”.

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