The achievement of the French nuclear fleet gives the opportunity to develop a complete nuclear industry for design of nuclear plants, exploitation and services, nuclear fuel cycle management, logistics, etc. AREVA, created in 2001, is the industrial heir of 50 years of research, technological innovations and industrial realisations in nuclear equipments and services.
In the front end of the cycle, AREVA supplies uranium and offers the conversion and enrichment services needed to fabricate the fuel assemblies that go into the reactor core. In the Reactors and Services division, the group has the expertise in all the processes and technologies needed for reactor design, construction, maintenance and continuous performance improvement. AREVA focuses principally on the PWR and BWR markets. Research and development programmes are going on about other technologies as HTR and chiefly sodium FBR in relationship with the CEA within international cooperation, such as GEN IV initiative.
The Front End division’s operations include uranium ore exploration, mining and concentration of uranium as U3O8 into uranium hexafluoride (UF6), uranium enrichment, and nuclear fuel design and fabrication.
The Reactors and services division is in charge of nuclear power plant design, construction and modernization, nuclear power plant equipment supply, and nuclear services, particularly for scheduled reactor outages.
The Back End division focuses on used fuel treatment and recycling, design and fabrication of casks for the transportation and storage of nuclear materials, and nuclear materials transportations and logistics.
In summary, the group has now in capacity to:
– sell uranium to its utility customers,
– supply uranium processing services to produce fuel, and design and fabricate fuel assemblies (for PWR and BWR as for experimental research reactors),
– design and build power plants and provide life extension services,
– offer engineering services and equipment to optimize power plant performance,
– recycle its customers’ used fuel to recover reusable materials (uranium and plutonium), produce MOX fuel from these recovered materials, treat and package in standardized canisters the ultimate waste for safe disposal.
For nearly 50 years France has developed a comprehensive programme which provides nearly 80% of its electricity without CO2 emissions. This policy has also given the opportunity to create a strong and complete nuclear industry from mining to waste management, including all the aspects of nuclear plants design and services to utilities. The global nuclear renaissance, due to increasing demand and new environmental issues, gives the opportunity to take advantage of the success story of the French nuclear programme, to diversify the number of customers all over the world and to open new partnerships.
 The chapter draws extensively from “World Energy Outlook 2007”, which has special focus on China and India, issued by the International Energy Agency, Paris.
 This chapter draws extensively from Abdelouas (2006).
 the control of seepage of radon through the tailings – the 226Ra concentrations should not exceed 0.185 Bq/g in general, and 0.555 Bq/g in the top 15 cm of soil. The concentration of radon decay products (including the background) in any
 This chapter draws extensively from Bruno and Ewing (2006).
 Hard rock, such as granite, in a situation of low relief. Low relief would preclude any significant groundwater movement. Fractured and jointed units should be
 Small offshore islands whose fresh water regime is not connected to the mainland. If the waste is disposed of below the interface of fresh water and salt water, there will be little chance of contact with groundwater.
 Liquid Core reactor. A closed loop liquid core nuclear reactor where the fissile material is molten uranium cooled by a working gas pumped in through holes in the base of the containment vessel.
• Gas core reactor. A closed loop version of the nuclear lightbulb rocket, where the fissile material is gaseous uranium-hexafluoride contained in a fused silica vessel. A working gas (such as hydrogen) would flow around this vessel and absorb the UV light produced by the reaction. In theory, using UF6 as a working fuel directly (rather than as a stage to one, as is done now) would mean lower processing costs, and very small reactors. In practice, running a reactor at such high power densities would probably produce unmanageable neutron flux.
• Gas core EM reactor. As in the Gas Core reactor, but with photovoltaic arrays converting the UV light directly to electricity.
Seven partners – European Union, China, India, Japan, Russia and USA-have joined together to build the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in Caderache in France. ITER will explore the techno-economic feasibility of fusion power. Fusion power is likely come into use only in the second half of the century.
 Review by Station Operation Review Committee (SORC). This committee comprising of senior experienced personnel in each station headed by Station Director, reviews the operation, adherence to technical specifications Radiological aspects and recommend the improvements.
• Periodic Internal Review for Safety assurance. These reviews are conducted by a team of officials independent to executing personnel. The status of implementation of recommendations is reviewed and monitored by Station Director/Project Director. The Safety Directorate of HQ, also monitors the functioning of these reviews.
• Corporate Reviews conducted by a corporate Review team comprising of the senior nuclear professions from NPCIL plants other than the reviewed plant and Corporate Office. The Corporate team reviews all functional areas, cross functional areas and safety; in specific. The findings of the Corporate Review team are reviewed by a high level committee at NPCIL. Head Quarter for implementation of recommendations by stations.
 Aswathanarayana (1985, pp. 159-162) summarized the geological and economic aspects of geothermal energy.
 The Chapter on Wind Energy draws extensively from Energy Technology Perspectives, 2008, Chap. 10, Wind, pp. 339-363.
 This chapter draws extensively from Energy technology perspectives, 2008, pp. 365-386.
 For volumetric trapping, capacity is the product of available volume (pore space) and CO2 density at in situ pressure and temperature.
2 For solubility trapping, capacity is the amount of CO2 that can be dissolved in the formation fluid (oil in oil reservoirs, brackish water or brine in saline formations).