#### LESSONS OF EASTER ISLAND

March 17th, 2016

Radionuclide |
Symbol |
Half-life |

Americium-241 |
241Am |
432.2 years |

Americium-243 |
243Am |
7.38 x 103 years |

Antimony-125 |
125Sb |
2.77 years |

Argon-41 |
41Ar |
1.827 hours |

Beryllium-7 |
7Be |
53.44 days |

Californium-252 |
252Cf |
2.639 years |

Carbon-14 |
14C |
5.730 x 103 years |

Cerium-141 |
141Ce |
32.50 days |

Cerium-143 |
143Ce |
1.38 days |

Cerium-144 |
144Ce |
284.3 days |

Cesium-134 |
134Cs |
2.062 years |

Radionuclide |
Symbol |
Half-life |

Cesium-137 |
137Cs |
30.17 years |

Cobalt-58 |
00 о О |
70.80 days |

Cobalt-60 |
о О О |
5.271 years |

Curium-242 |
242Cm |
163.2 days |

Curium-244 |
244Cm |
18.11 years |

Iodine-129 |
129i |
157 x 107 years |

Iodine-131 |
131i |
8.04 days |

Krypton-85 |
85Kr |
10.72 years |

Krypton-88 |
88Kr |
2.84 hours |

Manganese-54 |
54Mn |
312.7 days |

Neptunium-237 |
237Np |
2.14 x 106 days |

Niobium-95 |
2 cr |
35.06 days |

Osmium-185 |
185Os |
93.6 days |

Phosphorus-32 |
32p |
14.29 days |

Polonium-210 |
210Po |
138.378 days |

Plutonium-238 |
238Pu |
87.75 years |

Plutonium-239 |
239Pu |
2.41 x 104 years |

Plutonium-240 |
240Pu |
6.569 x 103 years |

Potassium-40 |
40K |
1.2777 x 109 years |

Promethium-147 |
147Pm |
2.6234 years |

Protactinium-234m |
234mPa |
1.17 minutes |

Radium-226 |
226Ra |
1.6 x 103 years |

Radium-228 |
228Ra |
5.75 years |

Ruthenium-103 |
103Ru |
39.35 days |

Ruthenium-106 |
106Ru |
368.2 days |

Strontium-89 |
89Sr |
50.55 days |

Strontium-90 |
90Sr |
28.6 years |

Technetium-99 |
99Tc |
2.13 x 105 years |

Thorium-228 |
228Th |
1.9132 years |

Thorium-230 |
230Th |
7.54 x 104 years |

Thorium-232 |
232Th |
1.405 x 1010 years |

Thorium-234 |
234Th |
2.41 x 101 day |

Tritium |
3H |
12.28 years |

Uranium-234 |
234U |
2.445 x 105 years |

Uranium-235 |
235U |
7.038 x 108 years |

Uranium-236 |
236U |
2.3415 x 107 years |

Uranium-238 |
238U |
4.468 x 109 years |

Xenon-133 |
133Xe |
5.245 x 109 years |

Xenon-135 |
135Xe |
9.11 hours |

Yttrium-90 |
90Y |
64.1 hours |

Zirconium-95 |
95Zr |
64.02 days |

Source. U. S. Department of Energy (1989). ‘‘Radioactive Decay Data Tables: A Handbook of Decay Data for Application to Radioactive Dosimetry and Radiological Assessments.’’ DOE/TIC-11026.

1. Definition of Ultralight Rail

3. Capacity and Energy Consumption of Highways

4. Ultralight Rail—Operational Characteristics

5. Energy Requirements of Ultralight Rail and Conventional Rail

6. Cost of Ultralight Rail Systems

7. Barriers to Implementation

8. Energy-Saving Opportunities with Ultralight Rail

Glossary

consist An individual unit or multiple vehicles traveling in a linked set.

grade The slope, or inclination, of the guideway.

guideway The rail, support structure, power delivery conductors, and control sensors that make up the path on which ultralight vehicles move.

headway The time period between trains or individual vehicles passing a particular point on the guideway.

kilowatt-hour (kWh) Base energy unit equaling 1 kW of power used for 1 h.

passengers per hour per direction (pphpd) The measure of capacity of a rail transit system, in terms of the maximum number of passengers the system can move in one direction.

To best describe the relationship between ultralight rail and energy, it is necessary to establish a basis of understanding. This basis is best defined in terms of the energy requirements of known and familiar modes of transportation, since there are so few examples of ultralight rail in operation. This article establishes this basis in terms of conventional rail systems and, where applicable, bus, automobile, and truck systems. The basic characteristics of both conventional and ultralight rail systems are described, followed by a comparison of the two systems, with an emphasis on the energy aspects of

1. Importance of Uranium and Thorium

2. Historical Context of Uranium Exploration

3. Geology and Geochemistry of Uranium

4. Current Uranium Production

5. Conventional Uranium Resources

6. Known Uranium Resources

7. Unconventional Resources

8. New Technologies for Uranium Extraction

9. Impact of Uranium Scarcity and Higher Extraction Costs

10. Summary

Glossary

cross section Probability of neutron interaction with a nucleus, expressed in terms of area, in units of barns, with 1 barn equal to 1.0 x 10-24 cm2.

enrichment The fraction of an isotope, usually fissile 235U, in a mass of uranium; enrichment is commonly quoted as the weight percentage of the particular isotope.

enrichment tails (or depleted uranium) The uranium remaining after the enrichment of natural uranium into fuel; today it is approximately 0.3% 235U, whereas earlier it was 0.20 to 0.25% 235U.

fractionation Crystallization from a magma in which the initial crystals are prevented from equilibrating from the parent liquid, resulting in a series of residual liquids of more extreme composition than would have resulted from continuous reaction.

highly enriched uranium (HEU) Uranium containing more that 20% 235U.

Jth Joule (i. e., watt-second) thermal, with 1 British thermal unit (BTU) equal to 1055 Jth.

low enriched uranium (LEU) Uranium containing less that

20% 235U.

mafic Composed chiefly of dark ferromagnesian minerals.

mega-separative work unit (MSWU) A million separative work units; a separative work unit is the separative work done to change the separation potential of 1 kg of

1. Introduction

4. Data Sets and Analysis Methods

5. Resource Assessment Methods

6. Status of Wind Resource Projects

Glossary

exclusion zone An area that cannot be used for wind power development because of environmental, legal, topographic, or other reasons.

frequency distribution of wind speed The percentage of time that the wind is blowing at each speed (14% at 2-3m/s, 8% at 3-4m/s, etc.).

geographic information system (GIS) The computer hardware, software, and technical expertise that inputs, stores, maintains, manipulates, analyzes, and outputs geographically referenced data. A GIS combines the power of spatial database management with high – resolution graphic display to effectively present information.

grid-connected A project that is connected to a utility distribution system.

power class A single number representing a range of wind power densities (WPD). A typical power classification scheme divides the WPD range from 0 to > 800 W/m2 into seven power classes.

Weibull distribution A mathematical function that is often a good approximation to the frequency distribution of wind speeds at a site.

wind electric potential The total number of megawatts of wind energy generating capacity that could be installed in a given area.

wind power density The average wind power over one square meter expressed in Watts per square meter (W/m2) in a vertical plane perpendicular to the wind direction.

wind resource A measure of how much wind energy is available at a given height at a given point or over a given area. It can be expressed in values of Watts per

**[1]**——– Surface of Earth

[2] A Brief Discussion of Conventional Rail

[3] Basics of Wind Resource

[4] Baseline Wind Resource Studies

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