COMPARATIVE LEVELS OF GREENHOUSE GASES

Pre-industrial (1750) and Present (1998) Abundances of Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases and the Radiative Forcing due to the Change in

Abundance

Gas

Abundance (1750)

Abundance (1998)

Radiative forcing (Wm 2)

Gases relevant to radiative forcing only

0

0

278

365

1.46

CH4

700

1745

0.48

N2O

270

314

0.15

cf4

40

80

0.003

C2F6

0

3

0.001

SF6

0

4.2

0.002

HFC-23

0

14

0.002

HFC-134a

0

7.5

0.001

HFC-152a

0

0.5

0.000

Gases relevant to radiative forcing and

ozone depletion

CFC-11

0

268

0.07

CFC-12

0

533

0.17

CFC-13

0

4

0.001

CFC-113

0

84

0.03

CFC-114

0

15

0.005

CFC-115

0

7

0.001

CCl4

0

102

0.01

CH3CCl3

0

69

0.004

HCFC-22

0

132

0.03

HCFC-141b

0

10

0.001

HCFC-142b

0

11

0.002

Halon-1211

0

3.8

0.001

Halon-1301

0

2.5

0.001

Source. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Note. Volume mixing ratios for CO2 are in ppm, for CH4 and N2O in ppb, and for the rest in ppt.

19. GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIALS

Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide (Kilogram of Gas per Kilogram of Carbon Dioxide)

Gas

Lifetime (years)

Direct effect for time horizons of 20 years 100 years 500 years

Carbon dioxide

5-200a

1

1

1

Methane

12

62

23

7

Nitrous oxide

114

275

296

156

Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride HFC-23

260

9400

12,000

10,000

HFC-125

29

5900

3400

1100

HFC-134a

13.8

3300

1300

400

HFC-152a

1.4

410

120

37

HFC-227ea

33

5600

3500

1100

Perfluoromethane (CF4)

50,000

3900

5700

8900

Perfluoroethane (C2F6)

10,000

8000

11,900

18,000

Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)

3200

15,100

22,200

32,400

Source. Energy Information Administration/Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2001.

aNo single lifetime can be defined for carbon dioxide due to different rates of uptake by different removal processes.

20. INTERNATIONAL ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

Country

Total energy production (ktoe)a

Total energy consumption (ktoe)a

Net energy imports (ktoe)a

1971

2000

Percent

change

1971

2000

Percent

change

1971

2000

Albania

2417.57

814.42

-66

1699.04

1634.31

-4

-718.53

819.89

Algeria

41,766.71

149,628.66

258

3681.12

29,059.5

689

-36,412.97

-120,895.29

Angola

9118.21

43,669.29

379

3927.62

7666.77

95

-4663.42

-35,502.23

Argentina

30,557.87

81,220.95

166

33,651.83

61,469.41

83

3763.49

-19,677.61

Armenia

0

631.96

0

2060.72

0

1428.76

Australia

53,852.03

23,2551.98

332

52,202.09

11,0174.34

111

-1700.99

-12,0340.66

Austria

7389.31

9686.24

31

18,994.03

28,582.2

50

11,693.55

18,665.52

Azerbaijan

0

18,951.09

0

11,703.49

0

-7351.6

Bahrain

4572.94

7261.34

59

1553.06

6391.22

312

-1978.95

-1169.01

Bangladesh

4848.38

15,053.27

210

5706.09

18,665.62

227

1052.91

3510.82

Belarus

0

3465.89

0

24,329.52

0

20,942.13

Belgium

6844.61

13,438.15

96

39,943.74

59,216.59

48

36,850.95

50,599.95

Benin

1002.24

1820.51

82

1110.34

2362.49

113

108.09

499.81

Bolivia

2303.44

5900.81

156

1035.22

4929.17

376

-1239.47

-1483.96

Bosnia and Herzegovina

0

3277.19

0

4359.31

0

1082.13

Brazil

49,230.06

142,078.01

189

69,620.18

183,165.01

163

22,296.9

43,408.07

Brunei

6650.65

19,158.61

188

178.37

1984.08

1012

-5947.48

-17,248.1

Bulgaria

5711.6

10,005.26

75

19,238.88

18,783.63

-2

13,587.77

8729.84

Total energy production (ktoe)a Total energy consumption (ktoe)a Net energy imports (ktoe)a

Percent Percent

Country

1971

2000

change

1971

2000

change

1971

2000

Cameroon

2452.43

12,729.48

419

2751.68

6355.31

131

299.26

-6335.48

Canada

155,646.37

374,863.52

141

142,737.01

250,967.31

76

-120,84.99

-131,791.97

Chile

5343.85

8299.13

55

8851.1

24,403.36

176

4016.32

16,955.57

Chinese Taipei

3948.05

11,492.66

191

10,582.05

83,010.81

684

7256.44

80,829.19

Colombia

19,370.2

74,583.6

285

14,052.09

28,785.52

105

-4998.3

-46,627.26

Congo

505.04

14,655.61

2802

678.86

894.52

32

167.68

-13,761.09

Costa Rica

663.1

1591.06

140

1134.12

3281.38

189

462.48

1631.73

Cote d’Ivoire

1639.19

6096.91

272

2500.37

6928.42

177

822.62

921.92

Croatia

0

3581.7

0

7775.46

0

4116.95

Cuba

3738.85

6051.38

62

10,933.92

13,202.86

21

7436.3

7744.37

Cyprus

9.12

44.92

393

646.2

2424.85

275

635.84

2579.74

Czech Republic

39,949.22

29,868.74

-25

45,638.68

40,383.04

-12

5739.69

9412.93

Democratic Republic of Congo

5928.83

15,446.24

161

6767.97

14,888.29

120

964.9

-556.03

Denmark

329.22

27,867.36

8365

19,242.04

19,456.27

1

20,038.8

-7533.22

Dominican Republic

1212.35

1420.96

17

2367.63

7804

230

1155.29

6383.03

Ecuador

1340.9

22,520.14

1579

2345.31

8187.15

249

1153.7

-13 577.79

Egypt

16,356.07

57,599.29

252

7834.98

46,423.15

493

-8608.62

-7297.08

El Salvador

1254.89

2157.49

72

1762.78

4083.03

132

501.75

1912.99

Eritrea

0

510.94

0

720.67

0

209.74

Estonia

0

2916.57

0

4522.92

0

1694.36

Ethiopia

8471.55

17,582.68

108

8998.18

18,732.19

108

588.38

1095.93

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

0

10,122.05

0

13,706.03

0

3583.97

Finland

4983.17

15,134.29

204

18,425.2

33,147.26

80

14,621.11

18,766.49

Former USSR

902,516.94

126,1902.02

40

788,362

92,1142.69

17

-107,116.82

-336,117.48

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

0

1547.34

0

2754.79

0

1145.5

Former Yugoslavia

14,372.66

21,640.97

51

22,134.9

35,135.5

59

6945.44

13,391.36

France

39,935.27

131,384.95

229

154,514.54

257,127.74

66

119,981.94

132,319.89

Gabon

6453.27

16,799.98

160

919.91

1563.11

70

-5469.08

-151,45.3

Georgia

0

737.19

0

2859.82

0

2092.3

Germany

175,200.71

134,316.7

-23

307,865.28

339,640.48

10

143,631.41

203,247.24

Ghana

2337.29

5883.35

152

3040.41

7719.75

154

770.84

1836.39

Gibraltar

0

0

38.2

161.53

323

214.76

1148.11

Greece

2084.89

9986.85

379

9147.83

27,821.63

204

7717.28

21,721.36

Guatemala

1933.76

5241.11

171

2797.75

7146.38

155

924.46

1936.01

Haiti

1378

1541.75

12

1510.82

2039.24

35

132.82

497.49

Honduras

1012.19

1522.21

50

1396.63

3012.25

116

369.53

1598.87

Hong Kong, China

31.02

48.05

55

3474.35

15,453.03

345

4059.65

18,910.31

Hungary

11,974.36

11,089.6

-7

19,216.37

24,782.92

29

7677.5

13,896.82

Iceland

413.83

2490.16

502

976.69

3428.77

251

559.66

1047.83

India

167,718.75

421,565.11

151

183,213.41

501,894.17

174

146,34.46

811,99.38

Indonesia

729,35.99

229,478.35

215

36,313.6

145,574.74

301

-33,867.99

-85,107.4

Iraq

85,980.03

134,088.88

56

4508.5

27,677.87

514

-81,462.5

-106,411.01

Ireland

1423.33

2197.27

54

7066.04

14,622.85

107

5840.54

12,456.58

Iran

238,830.7

242,146.01

1

18,564.91

112,725.35

507

-219,862.6

-128,802.42

Table continued

Country

Total energy production (ktoe)a

Total energy consumption (ktoe)a

Net energy imports (ktoe)a

1971

2000

Percent

change

1971

2000

Percent

change

1971

2000

Israel

5938.4

653.73

-89

6340.7

20,199.92

219

402.29

19,292.58

Italy

19,241.96

26,858.22

40

114,076.65

171,567.12

50

104,245.92

152,370.48

Jamaica

277.03

486.42

76

2151.22

3920.44

82

1923.15

3635.94

Japan

35,782.62

105,635.85

195

269,567.84

524,714.63

95

253,010.4

425,266.33

Jordan

0.93

286.19

30,673

531.74

5185.43

875

621.62

4835.34

Kazakhstan

0

78,101.98

0

39,063.16

0

-39,344.27

Kenya

6367.72

12,259.93

93

7699.3

15,482.47

101

1742.24

3304.67

Korea

6378.17

33,614.62

427

17,024.39

193,626.22

1037

10,687.77

167,665.02

Korea, DPR

18,675.57

42,575.97

128

19,953.77

46,112.3

131

1278.19

3536.33

Kuwait

159,081.47

111,469.48

-30

4964.81

20,893.52

321

-152,363.46

-90,222.1

Kyrgyzstan

0

1443.05

0

2444.65

0

959.39

Latvia

0

1249.88

0

3654.98

0

2312.92

Lebanon

168.49

170.6

1

1977.81

5058.07

156

2043.44

4889.51

Libya

137,513.8

73,903.73

-46

1659.62

16,437.78

890

-136,145.05

-57,379.55

Lithuania

0

3217.99

0

7123.74

0

4213.15

Luxembourg

4.73

56.68

1098

4115.06

3683.14

-10

4105.41

3676.74

Malaysia

4770.24

76,759.46

1509

6032.02

49,472.33

720

1295.5

-26,903.45

Malta

0

0

273.77

814.51

198

333.68

861.04

Mexico

45,500.02

229,652.63

405

45,586.58

153,513.18

237

317.58

-73,168.79

Morocco

613.38

571.83

-7

2417.48

10,293.03

326

2029.72

9530.85

Mozambique

7495.61

7219.2

-4

8265.73

7126.19

-14

1013.5

-86.9

Myanmar

7340.54

15,144.09

106

7910.68

12,522.07

58

408.75

-2695.64

Namibia

0

291.6

0

1030.7

0

739.11

Nepal

2506.29

6871.72

174

2570.06

7900.44

207

63.78

1028.71

Netherlands

37,345.95

57,239.02

53

51,304.14

75,799.02

48

23,821.89

34,465.75

Netherlands Antilles

0

0

5515.09

1084.15

-80

6815.18

2767.06

New Zealand

3417.3

15,379.49

350

7175.55

18,632.85

160

4083.06

3378.86

Nicaragua

736.44

1552.56

111

1258.5

2746.16

118

524.04

1158.25

Nigeria

111,492.73

197,726.15

77

36,150.5

90,168.58

149

-74,965.76

-106,986.64

Norway

6044.07

224,993.45

3623

13,850.4

25,616.63

85

8145.24

-198,190.27

Oman

14,889.96

60,083.98

304

89.21

9750.04

10,829

-13,461.01

-51,113.52

Pakistan

14,355.44

47,124.13

228

17,421.19

63,950.6

267

2920.27

17,205.51

Panama

342.58

731.72

114

1672.38

2546.05

52

1352.66

1879.6

Paraguay

1171.09

6885.91

488

1381.05

3929.5

185

209.96

-2918.56

People’s Republic of China

394,147.55

110,7635.92

181

391,711.57

114,2438.44

192

-2338.06

29,660.31

Peru

7468.46

9477.39

27

9416.02

12,694.68

35

2077.58

3347.92

Philippines

6308.68

20,922.07

232

14,610.53

42,424.28

190

8665.43

21,613.81

Poland

99,249.14

80,069.68

-19

86,313.9

89,975.37

4

-10,717.36

9625.97

Portugal

1384.49

3129.18

126

6527.74

24,612.61

277

5742.08

22,110.56

Qatar

22,027.2

57960

163

928.9

15,659.05

1586

-21,035.65

-44,736.6

Republic of Moldova

0

60.34

0

2871.12

0

2810.86

Romania

42,807.77

28,289.87

-34

42,086.3

36,330.32

-14

-717.03

7849.1

Russia

0

966,512.12

0

613,968.84

0

-347,821.9

Saudi Arabia

244,427.47

487,888.82

100

6241.54

105,303.32

1587

-225,693.54

-380,533.98

Senegal

825.03

1723.27

109

1343.06

3085.87

130

1439.8

1439.35

Singapore

0

63.55

2958.05

24,591.12

731

6622.94

40,887.32

Total energy production (ktoe)a

Total energy consumption (ktoe)a

Net energy imports (ktoe)a

Percent

Percent

Country

1971

2000

change

1971

2000

change

1971

2000

Slovak Republic

2687.23

5993.94

123

14,237.52

17,465.69

23

11,537.32

11,552.07

Slovenia

0

3112.69

0

6539.91

0

3462.81

South Africa

37,773.37

144,468.52

282

45,328.45

107,595.23

137

11,213.61

-34,036.81

Spain

10,449.87

31,865.48

205

43,104.53

124,881.28

190

35,415.2

100,232.96

Sri Lanka

2810

4529.93

61

3797.84

8062.93

112

1360.08

3790.78

Sudan

5667.59

23,664.26

318

6950.82

16,215.84

133

1474.62

-3629.6

Sweden

7385.94

30,680.94

315

36,484.91

47,481.11

30

31,495.29

18,057.72

Switzerland

2904.67

11,792.22

306

17,069.07

26,596.52

56

14,227.03

14,275.75

Syria

5315.26

32,889.56

519

2710.54

18,407.3

579

-2540.52

-16,232.23

Tajikistan

0

1249.76

0

2911.23

0

1661.47

Tanzania

8958.94

14,600.74

63

9692.16

15,386.26

59

869.63

809.59

Thailand

7892.85

41,117.54

421

14,119.2

73,618.34

421

6361.14

33,248.16

Togo

457.5

1035.74

126

558.94

1529.74

174

101.44

496.99

Trinidad and Tobago

8148.64

17,884.38

119

2698.4

8664.78

221

-3615.47

-9080.45

Tunisia

4912.14

7002.77

43

2042.99

7887.83

286

-2560.23

1013.22

Turkey

13,770.26

26,185.53

90

19,464.73

77,103.97

296

6107.37

50,998.37

Turkmenistan

0

45,967.97

0

13,884.74

0

-32,083.23

Ukraine

0

82,330.29

0

139,592.33

0

57,262.04

United Arab Emirates

52,785.56

143,588.88

172

1019.46

29,558.79

2799

-51,766.09

-109,109.34

United Kingdom

109,796.11

272,693.22

148

211,031.22

232,644.31

10

112,578.25

-40,720.57

United States

1,435,818.82

1,675,769.62

17

1,593,191.14

2,299,668.71

44

1,77,569.5

6,08,890.98

Uruguay

519.66

1028.29

98

2417.66

3078.64

27

1919.61

2261.51

Uzbekistan

0

55,065.94

0

50,151.43

0

-4893.86

Venezuela

210,431.4

225,470.15

7

20,142.47

59,256.39

194

-185,445.76

-165,159.16

Vietnam

14,204.46

46,299.4

226

19,788.11

36,964.65

87

5579.17

-9334.74

Yemen

48.72

22,046.49

45,151

764.17

3525.85

361

1069.55

-18,422.67

Zambia

3025.68

5915.55

96

3850.7

6243.8

62

825.02

366.72

Zimbabwe

5102.97

8708.46

71

5480.74

10,218.9

86

377.78

1407.7

Source. International Energy Agency.

aktoe, kilotons of oil

equivalent.

21. INTERNATIONAL HEAT CONTENT COMPARISONS

Nation

Abbrev.

Gross heat content natural gas liquidsa

Barrels of crude oil expressed as metric tons

Gross heat content natural crude oila

Gross heat content dry natural gasb

Gross heat content

coalc

North America

Canada

CA

3980

7.186

5810

1017

23,865

Mexico

MX

3620

6.965

6010

1059

17,012

United States

US

3735

7.333

5800

1025

20,905

Table continued

Nation

Abbrev.

Gross heat content natural gas liquidsa

Barrels of crude oil expressed as metric tons

Gross heat content natural crude oila

Gross heat content dry natural gasb

Gross heat content

coalc

South America

Argentina

AR

3820

7.120

5993

1045

22,300

Barbados

BB

0

7.286

5867

1047

0

Bolivia

BL

4130

7.881

5574

1043

0

Brazil

BR

4250

7.056

5910

1040

14,363

Chile

CI

4150

7.506

5780

1050

25,664

Colombia

CO

3286

7.080

6023

929

24,568

Cuba

CU

4344

6.449

6393

1047

0

Ecuador

EC

4235

7.130

5986

1300

0

Guatemala

GT

0

7.210

5947

0

0

Peru

PE

4617

7.407

5831

929

26,458

Suriname

NS

0

6.199

6321

0

0

Trinidad and Tobago

TD

4344

7.084

6023

1045

0

Venezuela

VE

4195

7.127

6135

1191

27,592

Western Europe

Austria

AU

4262

7.200

6020

1063

9929

Belgium

BE

0

0.000

0

0

19,908

Bosnia and Herzegovina

BK

0

0.000

0

0

13,252

Croatia

HR

4349

7.418

5823

1047

0

Denmark

DA

0

7.405

5677

1130

0

France

FR

4385

7.332

5869

1008

22,876

Germany

GM

0

7.330

5926

895

10,009

Greece

GR

4050

7.231

5926

1434

5046

Ireland

EI

0

0.000

0

1009

0

Italy

IT

4259

7.300

6158

1023

4381

Macedonia (Former

MK

0

0.000

0

0

8013

Yugoslav Republic)

Netherlands

NL

4347

7.239

6158

894

0

Norway

NO

4348

7.644

5620

1078

25,369

Slovenia

SI

0

7.418

5823

1057

10,192

Spain

SP

4348

7.506

5780

1139

11,378

Sweden

SW

0

6.623

6148

0

0

Turkey

TU

0

7.200

5976

1028

7437

United Kingdom

UK

4490

7.523

5803

1057

22,727

Yugoslavia

YR

0

7.418

5823

1061

8028

Eastern Europe

Albania

AL

0

6.594

6305

1044

8882

Azerbaijan

AJ

4150

7.270

5880

1047

0

Belarus

BO

0

7.270

5880

1037

0

Bulgaria

BU

0

7.332

5879

989

8038

Czech Republic

EZ

4645

6.780

6211

956

11,796

Georgia

GG

4150

7.270

5880

1047

13,229

Hungary

HU

4386

6.690

6249

957

7784

Kazakhstan

KZ

4150

7.270

5880

1047

13,229

Kyrgyzstan

KG

4150

7.270

5880

1047

13,229

Nation

Abbrev.

Gross heat content natural gas liquidsa

Barrels of crude oil expressed as metric tons

Gross heat content natural crude oila

Gross heat content dry natural gasb

Gross heat content

coalc

Lithuania

LH

0

7.270

5880

0

0

Poland

PL

4454

7.418

5820

797

15,976

Romania

RO

4619

7.506

5780

996

7259

Russia

RS

4150

7.270

5880

1009

18,302

Slovakia

LO

0

6.780

6211

960

11,067

Tajikistan

TI

4150

7.270

5880

1047

16,774

Turkmenistan

TX

4150

7.270

5880

1047

0

Ukraine

UP

4150

7.270

5880

1047

19,411

Uzbekistan

UZ

4150

7.270

5880

1017

13,322

Middle East

Bahrain

BA

4287

7.320

5879

1047

0

Iran

IR

4348

7.284

5888

1056

23,245

Iraq

IZ

4348

7.413

5820

1047

0

Israel

IS

0

7.247

5920

1039

0

Jordan

JO

0

7.190

5956

1047

0

Kuwait

KU

4190

7.258

5921

1047

0

Oman

MU

4581

7.330

5869

1047

0

Qatar

QA

3790

7.618

5777

1047

0

Saudi Arabia

SA

4265

7.285

5910

1047

0

Syria

SY

4300

7.290

6158

962

0

United Arab Emirates

TC

4532

7.553

5788

1047

0

Yemen

YM

0

7.631

5725

0

0

Africa

Algeria

AG

5080

7.945

5555

1127

23,245

Angola

AO

0

7.410

5828

1047

0

Benin

BN

0

6.870

6142

0

0

Botswana

BC

0

0.000

0

0

23,245

Cameroon

CM

0

7.205

5948

1047

23,245

Congo (Brazzaville)

CF

0

7.506

5780

1047

0

Congo (Kinshasa)

CG

0

7.320

5879

0

22,776

Cote d’Ivoire (IvoryCoast)

IV

0

7.285

5899

1000

0

Egypt

EG

4940

7.260

5922

1047

0

Equatorial Guinea

EK

0

7.275

5464

1047

0

Gabon

GB

0

7.305

5888

1047

0

Ghana

GH

0

7.285

5936

0

0

Libya

LY

4350

7.681

5775

1047

0

Morocco

MO

0

7.600

5738

1047

21,166

Mozambique

MZ

0

0.000

0

1047

22,565

Niger

NG

0

0.000

0

0

23,245

Nigeria

NI

0

7.411

5880

1047

23,245

Senegal

SG

0

0.000

0

899

0

South Africa

SF

4649

7.720

5657

1047

21,302

Swaziland

WZ

0

0.000

0

0

23,245

Tanzania

TZ

0

0.000

0

0

23,245

Tunisia

TS

4300

7.689

5677

1174

0

Table continued

Nation

Abbrev.

Gross heat content natural gas liquidsa

Barrels of crude oil expressed as metric tons

Gross heat content natural crude oila

Gross heat content dry natural gasb

Gross heat content

coalc

Zambia

ZA

0

0.000

0

0

22,304

Zimbabwe

ZI

0

0.000

0

0

24,371

Asia and Oceania

Afghanistan

AF

0

0.000

0

1047

22,000

Australia

AS

4290

7.868

5578

1090

19,916

Bangladesh

BG

4050

7.453

5792

979

0

Bhutan

BT

0

0.000

0

0

23,245

Brunei

BX

4506

7.340

5865

1154

0

Burma

BM

4348

7.084

6020

1054

19,240

China

CH

0

7.300

5879

1162

18,512

India

IN

4600

7.330

5729

1034

17,705

Indonesia

ID

4060

7.234

5740

1090

23,245

Japan

JA

4327

7.357

5899

1101

20,826

Korea, North

KN

0

0.000

0

0

23,245

Korea, South

KS

0

0.000

0

0

17,009

Laos

LA

0

0.000

0

0

24,403

Malaysia

MY

4410

7.641

5697

1053

26,458

Mongolia

MG

0

0.000

0

0

8016

Nepal

NP

0

0.000

0

0

7559

New Zealand

NZ

4075

7.321

5441

1032

19,723

Pakistan

PK

4372

7.500

5777

934

16,910

Papua New Guinea

PP

0

7.809

5607

1047

0

Philippines

RP

0

7.285

5902

977

18,120

Taiwan

TW

3825

6.568

6321

1000

0

Thailand

TH

4349

6.758

6317

977

10,961

Vietnam

VM

0

7.082

6022

1036

21,166

Source. U. S. Department of Energy. ^Thousand Btu per barrel. bBtu per cubic foot. cThousand Btu per short ton.

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