WORLD HYDROPOWER RESOURCES

Hydropower: Capability at End-1999 (TWh/year)

Gross theoretical capability

Technically exploitable capability

Economically exploitable capability

Algeria

12

5

Angola

150

90

65

Benin

2

1

Burkina Faso

1

N

N

Burundi

>6

>1

1

Cameroon

294

115

103

Central African Republic

7

3

Chad

N

N

Comoros

Congo (Brazzaville)

>125

> 50

Gross theoretical capability

Technically exploitable capability

Economically exploitable capability

Congo (Democratic Rep.)

1397

774

<419

Cote d’Ivoire

46

>12

12

Egypt (Arab Rep.)

>125

> 50

50

Equatorial Guinea

Ethiopia

650

> 260

260

Gabon

200

80

33

Ghana

17

11

7

Guinea

26

19

15

Guinea-Bissau

1

N

N

Kenya

> 30

9

Lesotho

5

2

Liberia

28

11

Madagascar

321

180

49

Malawi

15

6

Mali

>12

>5

Mauritania

Mauritius

N

N

Morocco

12

5

4

Mozambique

50

38

32

Namibia

9

9

9

Niger

>3

>1

1

Nigeria

43

32

30

Reunion

Rwanda

1

N

Sao Tome and Principe

Senegal

11

4

2

Sierra Leone

17

7

Somalia

2

1

South Africa

73

11

5

Sudan

48

19

2

Swaziland

4

1

N

Tanzania

39

20

2

Togo

4

2

Tunisia

1

N

N

Uganda

>18

>7

Zambia

52

29

11

Zimbabwe

19

18

Total Africa

>3876

>1888

Belize

1

N

N

Canada

1289

951

523

Costa Rica

223

43

Cuba

5

2

Dominica

N

N

N

Dominican Republic

50

9

6

El Salvador

7

5

2

Greenland

470

14

Grenada

N

N

N

Table continued

Gross theoretical capability

Technically exploitable capability

Economically exploitable capability

Guadeloupe

Guatemala

55

22

Haiti

4

1

N

Honduras

16

6

Jamaica

N

N

N

Mexico

154

64

38

Nicaragua

33

10

7

Panama

26

>12

12

Puerto Rico

St. Vincent and the Grenadines

United States of America

4485

529

376

Total North America

6818

> 1668

Argentina

172

130

Bolivia

178

126

50

Brazil

3040

1488

811

Chile

227

162

Colombia

1000

200

140

Ecuador

115

32

16

French Guiana

Guyana

61

> 25

25

Paraguay

111

85

68

Peru

1578

> 260

260

Surinam

32

13

Uruguay

32

10

Venezuela

345

261

130

Total South America

6891

>2792

Afghanistan

Armenia

22

8

6

Azerbaijan

44

16

7

Bangladesh

5

2

Bhutan

263

70

56

Cambodia

208

83

24

China

5920

1920

1260

Cyprus

59

24

Georgia

139

68

32

India

2638

660

Indonesia

2147

402

40

Japan

718

136

114

Kazakhstan

163

62

27

Korea (Democratic People’s Republic)

Korea (Republic)

52

26

19

Kyrgyzstan

163

99

55

Laos

233

63

42

Malaysia

230

123

Mongolia

56

22

Myanmar (Burma)

877

130

Gross theoretical capability

Technically exploitable capability

Economically exploitable capability

Nepal

727

158

147

Pakistan

210

130

130

Philippines

47

20

18

Sri Lanka

11

8

7

Taiwan, China

103

14

12

Tajikistan

527

>264

264

Thailand

56

19

18

Turkey

413

216

122

Turkmenistan

24

5

2

Uzbekistan

88

27

15

Vietnam

300

100

80

Total Asia

16,443

>4875

Albania

40

15

6

Austria

75

> 56

56

Belarus

7

3

2

Belgium

1

N

N

Bosnia-Herzogovina

69

24

19

Bulgaria

26

15

12

Croatia

10

9

8

Czech Republic

12

4

Denmark

N

N

N

Estonia

2

N

N

Faroe Islands

1

N

N

Finland

47

> 20

20

FYR Macedonia

9

6

France

200

72

70

Germany

120

26

20

Greece

80

15

12

Hungary

7

5

Iceland

184

64

40

Ireland

1

1

1

Italy

340

105

65

Latvia

7

6

5

Lithuania

5

3

2

Luxembourg

N

N

N

Moldova

2

1

1

Netherlands

1

N

N

Norway

600

200

180

Poland

23

14

7

Portugal

33

25

20

Romania

56

36

17

Russian Federation

2800

1670

852

Serbia, Montenegro

68

> 27

27

Slovakia

10

>7

6

Slovenia

13

9

8

Spain

138

70

41

Sweden

176

130

90

Table continued

Gross theoretical capability

Technically exploitable capability

Economically exploitable capability

Switzerland

144

41

35

Ukraine

45

24

19

United Kingdom

40

3

1

Total Europe

5392

> 2706

Iran (Islamic Rep.)

368

88

48

Iraq

225

90

67

Israel

88

<35

Jordan

N

N

N

Lebanon

2

1

Syria (Arab Rep.)

5

4

4

Total Middle East

688

<218

Australia

264

> 30

30

Fiji

3

1

French Polynesia

N

N

N

New Caledonia

New Zealand

152

77

40

Palau

Papua New Guinea

175

123

37

Solomon Islands

2

>1

Western Samoa

N

N

Total oceania

596

> 232

TOTAL WORLD

>40,704

>14,379

Sources. WEC Member Committees, 2000/2001; Hydropower and Dams World Atlas 2001, supplement to The International Journal on Hydropower and Dams, Aqua-Media International; estimates by the editors.

Note. A quantification of hydropower capability is not available for Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Mauritania, Reunion, Sao Tome and Principe, Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, French Guiana, Afghanistan, Korea (Democratic People’s Republic), New Caledonia, and Palau. As the data available on economically exploitable capability do not cover all countries, regional and global totals are not shown for this category.

16. ESTIMATES OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON STOCKS

Estimates of Terrestrial Carbon Stocks and NPP (Global Aggregated Values by Biome)

Global carbon stocks (PgC)a Carbon density (MgC/ha)

Biome

Area (109 ha)

Plants

Soil

Total

Plants

Soil

Tropical forests

1.76

212

216

428

120

123

Temperate forests

1.04

59

100

159

57

96

Boreal forests

1.37

-0

CO

CO

471

559

64

344

Tropical savannas and grasslands

2.25

66

264

330

29

117

Temperate grasslands and shrublands

1.25

9

295

304

7

236

Deserts and semi deserts

4.55c

8

191

199

2

42

Tundra

0.95

6

121

127

6

127

Global carbon stocks (PgC)a

Carbon density (MgC/ha)

Biome

Area (109 ha)

Plants Soil

Total

Plants Soil

Croplands

1.60

3 128

131

2 80

Wetlands

0.35

15 225

240

43 643

Total

15.12

466 2011

2477

Source. Data from WBGU (1988); forest data from Dixon et al. (1994). Table modified from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Change.

aSoil carbon values are for the top 1

m, although stores are also high below this depth in peatlands and tropical forests.

bWBGU boreal forest vegetation estimate is likely to be to high, due to high Russian forest density estimates including standing dead

biomass.

cIn WBGU, ice is included in deserts and semi-deserts category.

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