APPROXIMATE HEAT CONTENT OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

Energy source

Heat content (million Btu/barrel)

Asphalt

6.636

Aviation gasoline

5.048

Butane

4.326

Butane-propane mixture (60%^0%)

4.130

Distillate fuel oil

5.825

Ethane

3.082

Ethane-propane mixture (70%-30%)

3.308

Isobutane

3.974

Jet fuel, kerosene-type

5.670

Jet fuel, naphtha-type

5.355

Kerosene

5.670

Lubricants

6.065

Motor gasoline

Conventional

5.253

Oxygenated

5.150

Reformulated

5.150

Fuel ethanola

3.539

Natural gasoline

4.620

Pentanes plus

4.620

Подпись: Table continued Energy source Heat content (million Btu/barrel) Petrochemical feedstocks Naphtha less than 401 °F 5.248 Other oils equal to or greater than 401°F 5.825 Still gas 6.000 Petroleum coke 6.024 Plant condensate 5.418 Propane 3.836 Residual fuel oil 6.287 Road oil 6.636 Special naphthas 5.248 Still gas 6.000 Unfinished oils 5.825 Unfractionated stream 5.418 Waxes 5.537 Miscellaneous 5.796

Source. U. S. Department of Energy.

Подпись: TYPICAL ENERGY CONTENT OF FOSSIL AND BIOMASS FUELS

aFuel ethanol, which is derived from agricultural feedstocks (primarily corn), is not a petroleum product but is blended into motor gasoline. Its gross heat content (3.539 million Btu per barrel) is used in Annual Energy Review calculations; its net heat content (3.192 million Btu per barrel) is used in the Energy Information Administration’s Renewable Energy Annual calculations.

Solid fuels

Net heating values (MJ/kg)

Biomass fuels

Wood (wet, freshly cut)

10.9

Wood (air dry, humid zone)

15.5

Wood (air dry, dry zone)

16.6

Wood (oven dry)

20.0

Charcoal

29.0

Bagasse (wet)

8.2

Bagasse (air dry)

16.2

Coffee husks

16.0

Rice hulls (air dry)

14.4

Wheat straw

15.2

Corn (stalk)

14.7

Corn (cobs)

15.4

Cotton stalk

16.4

Coconut husks

9.8

Coconut shells

17.9

Fossil fuels

Anthracite coal

31.4

Bituminous coal

29.3

Lignite

11.3

Coke

28.5

Source. U. S. Department of Energy.

14. WORLD COAL RESERVES

World Estimated Recoverable Coal (Million Short Tons)

Region

Country

Recoverable anthracite and bituminousa

Recoverable lignite and subbituminousa

Total recoverable coala

North America

Canada

3826

3425

7251

Greenland

0

202

202

Mexico

948

387

1335

United Statesb

126,804

146,852

273,656

Total

131,579

150,866

282,444

Central and South America

Argentina

0

474

474

Bolivia

1

0

1

Brazil

0

13,149

13,149

Chile

34

1268

1302

Colombia

6908

420

7328

Ecuador

0

26

26

Peru

1058

110

1168

Venezuela

528

0

528

Total

8530

15,448

23,977

Western Europe

Austria

0

28

28

Croatia

7

36

43

France

24

15

40

Germany

25,353

47,399

72,753

Greece

0

3168

3168

Ireland

15

0

15

Italy

0

37

37

Netherlands

548

0

548

Norway

0

1

1

Portugal

3

36

40

Slovenia

0

303

303

Spain

220

507

728

Sweden

0

1

1

Turkey

306

3760

4066

United Kingdom

1102

551

1653

Yugoslavia

71

17,849

17,919

Total

27,650

73,693

101,343

Eastern Europe and Former U. S.S. R.

Bulgaria

14

2974

2988

Czech Republic

2330

3929

6259

Hungary

0

1209

1209

Kazakhstan

34,172

3307

37,479

Kyrgyzstan

0

895

895

Table continued

Region

Country

Recoverable anthracite and bituminousa

Recoverable lignite and subbituminousa

Total recoverable coala

Poland

22,377

2050

24,427

Romania

1

1605

1606

Russia

54,110

118,964

173,074

Slovakia

0

190

190

Ukraine

17,939

19,708

37,647

Uzbekistan

1102

3307

4409

Total

132,046

158,138

290,183

Middle East

Iran

1885

0

1885

Total

1885

0

1885

Africa

Algeria

44

0

44

Botswana

4740

0

4740

Central African Republic

0

3

3

Congo (Kinshasa)

97

0

97

Egypt

0

24

24

Malawi

0

2

2

Mozambique

234

0

234

Niger

77

0

77

Nigeria

23

186

209

South Africa

54,586

0

54,586

Swaziland

229

0

229

Tanzania

220

0

220

Zambia

11

0

11

Zimbabwe

553

0

553

Total

60,816

216

61,032

Asia and Oceania

Afghanistan

73

0

73

Australia

46,903

43,585

90,489

Burma

2

0

2

China

68,564

57,651

126,215

India

90,826

2205

93,031

Indonesia

871

5049

5919

Japan

852

0

852

Korea, North

331

331

661

Korea, South

86

0

86

Malaysia

4

0

4

Nepal

2

0

2

New Caledonia

2

0

2

New Zealand

36

594

631

Pakistan

0

2497

2497

Philippines

0

366

366

Taiwan

1

0

1

Region

Country

Recoverable anthracite and bituminousa

Recoverable lignite and subbituminousa

Total recoverable coala

Thailand

0

1398

1398

Vietnam

165

0

165

Total

208,719

113,675

322,394

World Total

571,224

512,035

1,083,259

Sources. World Energy Council, Survey of Energy Resources 2001, October 2001. United States: Energy Information Administration. Unpublished file data of the Coal Reserves Data Base (February 2002).

Notes. Formerly entitled ‘‘World Estimated Recoverable Reserves of Coal.” The estimates in this table are dependent on the judgment of each reporting country to interpret local economic conditions and its own mineral assessment criteria in terms of specified standards of the World Energy Council. Consequently, the data may not all meet the same standards of reliability and some data, including the Energy Information Administration’s (EIA)’s, may not represent reserves of coal that are known to be recoverable under current economic conditions and regulations. Some data, including the EIA”s, represent estimated recovery rates for highly reliable estimates of coal quantities in the ground that have physical characteristics like those of coals currently being profitably mined. U. S. coal rank approximations are based partly on Btu and may not match precisely borderline geologic ranks. Further, data in this table may represent different base years. Data for the U. S. represent recoverable coal estimates as of December 31, 2000. Data for countries are as of December 31, 1999, the most recent period for which they are available. The Energy Information Administration does not certify the International reserves data but reproduces the information as a matter of convenience for the reader. Sum of components may not equal total due to independent rounding.

aWorld Energy Council definition of ‘‘Proved Recoverable Reserves’’ the tonnage within the Proved Amount in Place that can be recovered (extracted from the earth in raw form) under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology.

bData represent both measured and indicated tonnage, as of January 1, 2001 (equated to December 31, 2000). The U. S. term ‘‘measured’’ approximates the term ‘‘proved’’ used by the World Energy Council. The U. S. ‘‘measured and indicated’’ data have been combined prior to depletion adjustments and cannot be recaptured as ‘‘measured alone.’’

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