Подпись: Figure 10.5. The Solar Keymark logo

The standards for collectors and factory-made systems EN 12975-1 &2 and EN 12976-1&2, as described in Sections 10.2.1 and 10.3 respectively, will serve as the basis for a European certificate for solar thermal products. At the time of publication, the European Solar Industry Federation ESTIF and 13 test institutions representing 11 European countries are working together to establish the so-called Solar Keymark (see Figure 10.5). The Solar Keymark certifies conformity of solar collectors and factory-made solar domestic hot water systems with the European standards (Nielsen, 2001).

The Solar Keymark is one of several Keymarks that make up the official CEN/CENELEC European Certification Mark System for demonstrating compliance of products with European standards (CEN/CENELEC, 2001). This general Keymark is a third-party certification mark demonstrating to users and consumers reliable quality and reliable performance information. The accompanying Mark Scheme includes not only the link to the standards but also a link to the requirements on factory production control according to ISO 9000, including periodic surveillance. Bodies engaged in certification, testing and inspection must fulfil the requirements of the relevant EN 45000/17000 series standard in order for them to be accredited for the scope of their activity.

Keymarks can only be issued in conjunction with national marks. These national marks may, however, contain limited additional requirements, e. g. building regulations, specific safety aspects and further processing of performance figures.

The objective of the Solar Keymark is to open up the European market and establish a common European quality mark. The Solar Keymark will be voluntary, but it is expected that it will be widely used because the European standards are implemented as national standards in all CEN member countries. More up-to-date information can be found at the Solar Keymark website: http://www. solarkeymark. org.

Plate 1. World map of yearly average global irradiation (on a horizontal surface) in kWh! m2a. (Source: METEOTEST, Berne, Switzerland, http:llwww. meteonorm. com). See also Figure 2.1, page 11

■ < 20

Подпись: METEONORM 4.0Подпись: Temperature: year I°Cl_ 20 ..10 П – io „ -6 П б., о

□ 0.. 5

□ 6.. 10

10.. 15

LJ 15.. 20 1 . 20 .. 26


Подпись: 1Ю 170 1*0 110 1*0 DC 1JO ПО 10O *0 *0 70 *0 *0 *0
Подпись: METEONORM 4.0

Plate 2. World map of yearly average ambient temperature in °С. (Source: METEOTEST, Berne, Switzerland, http:llwww. meteonorm. com). See also Figure 2.2, page 11


Plate 3. Integration of the collector array into a warm-roof construction (Source: AEE INTEC). See also Figure 5.13, page 104


Plate 4. Roof-integrated collectors. The far left and far right sections of the roof are dummies. As they are the same colour as the centre section, there is a uniform look to the whole roof. In this case, two roof windows have also been integrated into the collector roof (Source: AEE INTEC, Austria). See also Figure 5.15, page 105


(a) On-roof assembly. (Source: AEE INTEC, Austria)


(b) Collector as roof cover modules. (Source: SolarNor, Norway)


(c) Collector module with framing. (Source: S. O.L. I.D., Austria)



(d) Collector as factory built unit. (Source: Wagner & Co, Germany)


Plate 5. continued



Plate 6. Design can enable a fagade-integrated collector to receive maximum irradiation (Source: Sonnenkraft, Austria). See also Figure 5.17, page 108


Plate 7. In regions with snow, fagade-integrated collectors for solar combisystems have several advantages: no snow cover on the collectors and high irradiation on the fagade due to reflection from snow (Source: AKS DOMA, Austria). See also Figure 5.21, page 111

Подпись: Plate 8. Installation of prefabricated wall elements with fagade-integrated collectors. (Source: AKS DOMA, Austria). See also Figure 5.24, page 113

Plate 9. Solar heating system with a fagade-integrated collector of area 112 m2 for a youth hostel in Dornbirn, Austria. The fagade-integrated collectors were installed as a part of the thermal renovation of the building (Source: AEE INTEC, Austria). See also Figure 5.25, page 114


Plate 10. Solar heating system with a fagade-integrated collector of area 22.7тг for domestic hot water and space heating in a new single-family house. (‘Source: AEE INTEC, Austria). See also Figure 5.26, page 114


Plate 11. Restaurant at an altitude of 2400 metres in a skiing area in the Tyrol, Austria, with a blue collector of area 120m2 (Source: AKS DOMA, Austria). See also Figure 5.28, page 115


Plate 12. Two-family house with a collector area of 55 m2 on the south-facing fagade (Source: AEE INTEC, Austria). See also Figure 5.29, page 116


Plate 13. Test collector on a brick wall of the south-west fagade of an office building. The collector forms a square of 25 m2 (Source: AEE INTEC, Austria). See also Figure 5.32, page 118


Plate 14. Collector roof with integrated roof windows (Source: AEE INTEC, Austria). See also Figure 5.33, page 120


Plate 15. Ranten Mountain Resort, Nesbyen, Norway – solar combisystem for DHW, space and swimming pool heating; collector area 200 m2; storage volume 4 m3; pool volume 90 m3 (Source: Solarnor, Norway). See also Figure 5.34, page 120


Plate 16. Collectors used as a design element – the collector array is duplicated in the shape of the winter garden glazing ("Source: AEE INTEC, Austria). See also Figure 5.35, page 121


Plate 17. When integrating collectors into the fagade, shading of the collectors by other building elements during summertime should be very carefully taken into consideration ("Source: AKS DOMA, Austria). See also Figure 5.36, page 121


image455Plate 18. Another good example of fagade integration (Source: Wagner & Co., Germany). See also Figure 5.37, page 121


Plate 19. A successful example of roof integration (‘Source: AEE INTEC, Austria). See also Figure 5.38, page 122.


Plate 20. Dependency of the extended fractional energy savings on tilt angle and azimuth of the collector (climate: central Europe, 100% = 39% of fssJj (Heimrath, 2002). See also Figure 8.1, page 193


Plate 21. Stratifying unit for hot water stores showing outlet into the middle of the store ("Source: Solvis, Germany). See also Figure 8.13, page 205

.1*1 >i

Btor* Ta*np«talur* K| — Тем

image459 image460 image461

• . г


image462Plate 22. Plot for one day from a simulation of System #71 using TRNSYS. See also Figure 8.21, page 220


Plate 23. The four diagrams of the FSC nomogram and an example of its use. See also Figure 8.16, page 214.

Inttf п*юп*І En+rgy

Soiw H«»ting«nd Cooing ptogram

T *Sk26:

Sotv Combisgsttms

I FSC nomoqi am |

R*#f*nct consumption [kWh]

, 05,

2.5 ME Iff



Plate 24. The FSC nomogram. See also Figure 8.17, page 215



image465Object Task 26 SE2 system with oil boiler – May 2001 refs

Usage System Performance – optimisation

Model Based on CEN test. 1998.. inc. building and heating syst

Created by C. Bales

Подпись: DateNov 2001

20 w **















op: oc







24- –

“ л u Temp







Подпись: :: -116 – •- – 15 .

Plate 25. Example system diagram for System if 11 in the graphical pre-processor Presim. The black figures next to the components are the unit number (sequential number) and the green next to some of the boxes is the number of the relevant equation set. See also Figure 8.22, page 225

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