Photovoltaic devices were developed in the middle 1950s as the semiconductor industry was growing and proved themselves as useful power converters in the space programs. Their golden age is just now starting as their potential for contributing to the world’s energy requirements is being recognized. The next few years should see drastic changes and rapid development of the understanding and usefulness of photovoltaic devices and systems. The reader may find additional general information on solar cells in references by Backus (1976), Rappaport (1959), Wolf (1974), Shirland
(1966) , Angrist (1971), Kettani (1970), and Fischer (1974).
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