RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

5.4.1 ELECTRICITY GENERATION

The electricity generated by the PV-grid energy system and the corre­sponding electricity consumed by the users (when the cost of PV is $2400/ kW and global solar radiation is 6 kW h/m2/day) is shown in Table 3. This table shows the total electricity produced by the energy system is 331,536 kW h/year which comprises of 133,867 kW h/year (40.4%) from the solar PV and 197,668 kW h/year (59.6%) from the grid. The generated electric­ity is utilized as follows: 82.6% (273,695 kW h/year) is consumed by the users, 13.4% (44,454 kW h/year) is sold back to the grid and 4.0% ac­counted for transmission losses.

Production

Consumption

kW h/yr %

kW h/yr %

TABLE 3: Electricity generated by the solar PV-grid system and end-use consumption pattern.

Solar PV

133,867

40.4

AC load

273,695

82.6

Grid purchases

197,669

59.6

Grid sales

44,454

13.4

Losses

13,387

4.0

Total

331,536

100.0

Total

331,536

100.0

The performance parameters of the solar PV are presented in Table

4. The capacity factor, which is defined as the ratio of an actual energy output during a given period to the energy output that would have been generated if the system is operated at full capacity for the entire period, is given as 19.1%. This relatively low value is due to facts that in this study, the orientation of the system fixed tilt (at latitude). The capacity factor can be increased using tracking system. This factor is a useful parameter for users, developer and manufacturer of the solar PV energy system. It deter­mines the economic viability of this energy system. The value of capacity factor for the PV determined in this study is comparable to findings from similar studies (see e. g., [25]). It can further be observed that the average daily energy output from the solar PV system is observed to be 367 kW h/ day or 15.29 kW.

TABLE 4: Performance parameters for the PV system.

Parameters

Quantity

Rated capacity (kW)

80

Mean output (kW)

15.3

Mean output (kW h/day)

367

Capacity factor (%)

19.1

Total production (kW h/year)

133,867

The monthly average of electricity produced by each component of the PV-connected energy system is presented in Fig. 5. The monthly and seasonal variations in amount of electricity produced by PV system and contribution from the grid can be observed from this figure. This is due to the variability in monthly global solar radiation. The maximum average monthly power generated by the solar PV is about 16.9 kW (in November) and the minimum of about 12.2 kW occurred in August. The monthly en­ergy from purchased and sold to the grid is presented in Table 5. It can be observed from this table that the quantity of electricity purchased varies from 14,941 kW h in November when the PV produced highest amount electricity to 19,486 kW h in August when the PV produced the least amount of electricity. Similar variations in the electricity sold to the grid can also be observed from this table.

TABLE 5: Monthly amount of electricity purchased from and sold to the grid.

Month

Energy purchased (kW h)

Energy sold (kW h)

January

16,577

4503

February

14,089

4163

March

17,210

4154

April

16,104

3844

May

15,658

3645

June

16,914

3036

July

17,261

2480

August

19,486

2356

September

16,823

3202

October

16,327

4227

November

14,914

4404

December

16,306

4440

Annual

197,669

44454

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