The Waste

So what happens to all these batteries once used? In the United States, batteries in general represent ‘less than one per cent of total municipal solid waste generated’ but ‘accounted for nearly two-thirds of the lead, ninety per cent of the mercury, and over half of the cadmium found in the waste’ [150]. This supports the case for battery recycling structures as well as switching from primary to reversible secondary batteries where possible. Secondary batteries, when used correctly, contribute to reducing waste [136] and therefore pollution.

Подпись:Подпись:Подпись: 1980Подпись:Подпись:Подпись:image172I West Asia

I North America


Latin America and the Caribbean


Europe and Central Asia

Asia and the Pacific

I Africa

Related pollution at the worldwide level comes from small consumer electronic products that are disposed of still containing their batteries. This indicates the importance of ensuring minimal environmental impact of storage devices in general, be they primary or secondary. An ideal goal is to avoid electrochemical storage altogether, which is already technically feasible in low-power electronics [196], an area that may be ideal for IPV applications.

Updated: July 1, 2015 — 4:30 am