In summary it can be said that PV can be used like no other energy source in three dimensions:
• The first dimension relates to energy production: After their use in space, PV solar cells were increasingly also used for terrestrial electricity production—e. g. for solarcars and in buildings.
• Second dimension: Solar electricity production with an optimum integration of the installation on roofs and facades.
aSwiss Solar Prize 2009, p. 34/35 and Fig. 44.40. bMarket-based compensation for billions of fossil-nuclear subsidies. cSolar architecture in Basel If the inhabitants formerly paid 20 cts./kWh, they previously had annual energy costs of CHF 44,600. Today, with 15,800 kWh and assumed costs of 60 cts./kWh, they have annual energy costs of CHF 9480. With the difference of approximately CHF 35,000, the energy investments of approximately CHF 880,000 are financed; see refurbishment of multi-family house in Basel, Swiss Solar Prize 2009, p. 36/37. This generates a local added value and jobs for building examinations. It also leads to a decrease in oil, gas and uranium imports i. e. to more energy-independent countries.
During the last decade, innovative architects like Lord Norman Foster/Prof. Stefan Behling (London), Prof. Thomas Herzog (Munich), Beat Kampfen (Zurich) and several building companies have realised award-winning examples.
• Third dimension: Solar electricity and integration of the installation on roofs and facades combined with energy efficiency in the building sector. The results are sensational.