44.5.2 PV-PEB Cover 75% of World’s Energy Consumption

1st conclusion: PEB cover 75% of a family’s total energy need Reduction of energy losses by 90%: If from 2010 on all new

buildings were built according to today’s level of Central Europe’s building technology, they would have an energy self-supply of 100 to 200%—which is proved by different energy measurements. Refurbishments of apartment and business buildings lead to an efficiency increase of more than 90%. Additionally, the self-supply of refurbished buildings can be between 80% and 150% thanks to PV.

2nd conclusion: 100 to 200% PV energy gains: The massive, 90%

reduction of energy losses in refurbished buildings and the energy gain in new and refurbished buildings of 100% to 200% allow the following conclusion: Thanks to PV, Central Europe’s building park can averagely supply itself by at least 100%. New PlusEnergy Buildings usually produce an electricity excess that can be used to operate solar-powered electric cars for the building inhabitants and generally also for the business employees. Excepted are energy­intensive businesses and heavy trucks if they are not operated with biogas or other renewable energies.

3rd conclusion: Solar energy covers our energy need on the average only: According to the OECD, apartment and commercial buildings make up for 46 to 50% of our total energy need. b Practically all national energy statistics furthermore say that the building and traffic sector together make up for approximately 75% of the total

aSolar Agency Research, AADC energy study, Zurich/Wil, March 2009; it depends on the ordering party whether PEB are partially realised or not. bAccording to the OECD, the total energy demand of 46 to 50% includes heating, warm water as well as household and business electricity; see University of Cambridge/UK and Prof. L. Glicksman, MIT/USA, Swiss Solar Prize 2005, p. 10.

energy need of an average family. The mentioned examples are not just theoretical cases, but existing Minergy-P/passive buildings and PEB that already cover the total energy need including traffic energy with today’s level of technology. In Paris and Lyon as well as in other Central European countries the part in car owners has been decreasing since 10 years. More than 50% and in Basel even 65% of the urban households do not own a car. Empirical results show that future PEB could cover 75% of the total energy need of an average family. With PV-PEB, however, this can only be guaranteed for the annual average—without storage, but only if the sun is shining.

4th conclusion: PEB need regulating energy to guarantee 100% security of supply: The main argument against solar energy and

especially PV is the unreliability of solar electricity. At night and when the sun is not shining, a solar energy supply is not possible. However, this is complemented by regulating energy that guarantees for electricity when the sun is not shining. The most reliable comple­mentary energy and environmental-friendly regulating energy for PEB is water power. If PEB are built comprehensively, they depend on ecologic pump storage power plants. a

5th conclusion: Security of supply thanks to ecological pump storage power plants: In 2006, the Swiss Greina Foundation (SGF) asked

the regional electricity company Ratia Energie AG to verify an environmental-friendly pump storage project at the Bernina. On one hand, because 16,000 km of the Alpine rivers are affected aThe Swiss Greina Foundation (SGS) for the protection of Alpine rivers was founded in 1986. Since 2004, it has been developing a project of ecologic pump storage power plants (EPSPP) in cooperation with the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; In 2005, 93% of the members were supporting such a water protection and energy strategy if the following conditions are met:

(i) In the drainage zone measures for the reduction of hydro-peaking, detritus management and flood protection are needed.

(ii) Besides the constitutionally “adequate” and ecologically sufficient minimum acceptable flows, dynamisation and seasonal graduation as well as flood waters will have to be considered as well.

(iii) The produced energy shall principally be used as regulating energy for wind and solar energy or other renewable energies in order to make a significantly

negatively,3 and on the other hand because future buildings in Europe will only require 10% of today’s total energy need; an amount that can be covered easily by an optimum solar PV – utilisation on roofs and facades. In order to guarantee a 24-hr security of supply, however, regulating energy is necessary. An ecologic security of supply (without gas-fired, nuclear or coal-fired power plants) with enough peak and regulating energy for Europe can only be guaranteed by storage power plants or pump storage power plants such as those planned and built at the Bernina Pass, Nant de Drance, Linth Limmern, Grimsel or in the Austrian Alps.

6th conclusion: Excessive wind energy is transformed into profitable regulating energy: The massive development of wind energy in

Europe leads to big energy fluctuations in the European grid. In order to avoid a grid surcharge and excesses in wind energy, the consumer is paid 50 € for each MWh of energy consumption (negative price). In 2009, such electricity payments were made 18 times. b Due to the daily fluctuations of the stochastic wind energy, only between 15 and 30% of the wind energy production can be considered as "trustworthy.” This is disadvantageous ecologically and also economically.

7th conclusion: More than 100% security of supply with wind,

water and the sun. If the economic and ecologic disadvantages

ecological contribution to the energy supply. Pump energy shall have a continuously increasing part of renewable energies, esp. wind and solar energy. The cheap wind energy excess must be used primarily to substitute coal-burning and nuclear power plants.

(iv) Existing plants shall be used and optimised without harming additional rivers or protected landscapes. Therefore, the water shall be used in a possibly closed circuit in order to transform renewable energies into regulating and peak energy.

(v) A consistent implementation of these measures massively reduces the problem of hydro-peaking and guarantees adequate waters in the mountain storage plants in order to have "adequate residual waters” in all rivers as requested by the Swiss sovereign already on Dec. 7,1975.

aDispatch of the Swiss Federal Council of June 27, 2007, on the popular initiative "living water”, p. 5515. According to the Federal Council 15,800 km of our rivers are "highly affected” or drained—despite the request of 77.5% of the Swiss sovereign for "securing adequate residual waters” on Dec. 7,1975.

bFrankfurter Allgemeine (newspaper): "When electricity prices get negative,” December 10, 2009, p. 17.

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Figure 44.45 Central Europe needs regulating energy: The left chart shows the huge fluctuations in wind energy production during a week in May 2006 in Germany The excessive wind energy is ideally used as pump energy in pump storage power plants. The figure on the right shows that production fluctuations will massively increase in Europe and will probably amount to 60,000 MW by 2020. This ecologic, excessive and cheap wind energy has to be used.

of wind energy are combined with PV and water power, the disadvantages are transformed into advantages: The excessive and therefore cheap wind and solar energy is ideal for pumping: with the cheaper wind energy—instead of nuclear or coal electricity— the water is pumped from the bottom (valley storage) to the mountain storage. On demand—when the sun is not shining— enough regulating energy for Minergy-P/passive buildings and PEB can be produced. Additionally, solar electricity exceeds of PEB are also fed to ecological pump storage power plants (see Figs. 44.45 and 44.46).

8th conclusion: Lake Binaco as ecological pump storage power

plant. Figure 44.45 shows the feasibility chart of the newly planned Lake Binaco plant at the Bernina as an ecological pump storage power plant. Ratia Energie AG agreed to invest in wind energy for 150 to 300 MW: The pump storage power plant can only be labelled as ecological if the pumps are operated with wind or solar energy.

9th conclusion: PEB and ecologic PSPP secure Europe’s energy

future. New pump storage power plants (PSPP) have capacities between 600 MW and 1.2 GW (compared to older PSPP with capacities between 40 and 100 MW). If these new PSPP use the

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Figure 44.46 Upon initiative of the Swiss Greina Foundation, the first ecologic pump storage power plant has been planned and will be realised from 2013 on at the Bernina. Excessive and therefore cheap wind energy and in the future also solar energy will be used to pump the water from the bottom (valley storage) to the mountain. With such projects, existing storages can be operated in a better way and produce more regulating energy The problems of hydro-peaking are reduced and, conforming residual water quantities" are guaranteed. On the average, PlusEnergyBuildings produce more energy than they need over the year— however, when the sun is not shining, they depend on regulating energy

enormous wind potential in Europe for pumping, they become ecologic pump storage power plants (EPSPP). Despite 25% pump storage losses they are still able to guarantee the energy supply for the whole industrial and service sector with renewable energies. a aIn the North, there is an enormous potential of wind energy, which is increasingly used, especially after the decision at the beginning of 2010 of nine Northern states to establish an adequate North European electricity grid. A high-voltage power line with approximately 500 kV between the Netherlands and Norway is already in operation. Nevertheless, Germany’s wind energy excess is increasing each year, which leads to negative prices (18 times in 2009—with an electricity price of 1.50 Є per kWh! (see newspaper “Frankfurter Allgemeine”, December 10, 2009). The potential of renewable energies is therefore more than sufficient; see also Jacobson, University Stanford: Mark Z. Jacobson and co-authors assume an energy supply with renewable energies of 100% by 2030 (Spectrum of science 12/2009, p. 80 ff.). Considering that the sun is sending 10,000 times more energy to the world that

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Figure 44.47 Proposal of the Swiss Greina Foundation of 2007. The figure shows the planned 1000 MW water power plant (actually 43 MW) in Poschiavo, Grisons, with a new power line of 17 km length between Lake Poschiavo (left/950 m) and Lake Bianco (right/2250 m). With this project, hydro-peaking (S-SV) is decreased from 1:24 (respectively 1:40 as planned in 1995) to 1:2. The concrete dam atthe Bernina is only augmented by 4.3 m instead of 17 m, and conforming residual water quantities are guaranteed. The production of regulating energy increases from 120 GWh/a to 2500 GWh/a. Thanks to 20 times higher regulating energy reserves, a 100% security of supply for PEB can be guaranteed.

Together, solar PEB, wind power plants and EPSPP are able to guarantee a 24-hr supply security for all European buildings and for individual traffic. Today, German wind energy production shows a daily fluctuation between 10 and 15 GW. With the continuously increasing stochastic wind and solar energy production, Europe will have daily fluctuations between 30 and 50 GW until 2030. Until then, further EPSPP with a capacity of 20 to 50 GW will be needed in the French Alps, Austria and Switzerland as well as maybe in other regions such as the Pyrenees in order to level the production fluctuations from the energy production regions.

it is totally needed, this is not astonishing. An energy transport with high-voltage power lines is only acceptable underground or along existing infrastructure such as highways, railways etc.

Подпись: Landwirtsdiaftsbetrieb Baibaredte/FR (no kWp) erzeugt 125*000 kwh/a Figure 44.48 With a solar installation of 110 kWh, the agricultural business of farmer family Aeberhard in Barbareche/FR produces on the average 125,000 kWh/a. This is enough to fully supply four non-refurbished housing units. According to the example of the two-family house of family Spillmann in Zurich, the agricultural business would be able to fully supply 125 refurbished housing units (125 x 1000 = 125,000 kWh/a).

10th conclusion: PEB produce excess energy for cultural monu­

ments, the traffic sector. It is not possible for all buildings or cultural monuments to use solar energy optimally. But there are, on the other hand, very powerful PEB producing 200%, 300% or even more than 400% of their annual energy need as shown by several examples on the countryside. Furthermore, there are also big halls and buildings in the cities that could be used accordingly. Since 2005, the farmer family Aeberhard is operating their solar farm with a self­supply of 400% or 125,000 kWh).a This is enough to supply four traditional apartments with a consumption of 27,000 kWh/a. After refurbishment, such apartments will only consume 1000 kWh/a, and the farmer family Aeberhard would be able to fully supply 125

See Swiss Solar Prize 2006, p. 32.

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Figure 44.49 SIG/SES-Societe d’energie solaire SA, 1228 Plan-Les-Ouates, Zurich/Basel, was awarded the Swiss and European Solar Prize in 2008. In 2008/09, the 571 kWp PV installation with Sunpower solar cells produced on the average 585,000 kWh/a. With a surface of 3395 m2, this results in 172 kWh/m2a, which is enough to drive 15,000 km each with 400 solar – powered electric cars each year (see Swiss Solar Prize 2008, front page and p. 34/35.

refurbished housing units.3 This is therefore another example to show the importance of energy efficiency in the building sector (see next paragraph "the third dimension”).

11th conclusion: SES-SIG supplies 400 solar-electric cars with

solar electricity. Usine Solaire of SES and SIG in Plains-les-Quates (Geneva) was awarded the Swiss and European Solar Prize in 2008 for its optimally integrated solar installation with a surface of 3400 m2. This PV installation produces 585,000 kWh/a, which is more than the solar installation on Mont Soleil using 20,000 m2 of pasture and meadows. With a production of 585,000 kWh/a, this single solar installation is able to supply 390 electric cars with solar electricity. This means that 390 employees of Usine Solaire can aFarmers and energy producers Elisabeth and Beat Aeberhard in Barbareche/FR, Swiss Solar Prize 2006, p. 32/33 and family Spillmann in Zurich, Swiss Solar Prize 2009, p. 40/41.

drive a distance of 15,000 km each year with their solar-powered electric cars. In 2009, the PlusEnergyBuildings in Bennau/Schwyz and the PlusEnergyBuilding refurbishment of ZUst in Griisch were awarded the European Solar Prize. They have a self-supply of 110 to 160%.a Also these apartment and business buildings do not only supply themselves on their own, but produce solar electricity used for the mobility of the inhabitants. With such practical examples, the building and solar industry proves that the "Stanford plan for an emission-free world”b could be realised until 2030 according to today’s technological standard. If renewable energies, especially PV, are combined with energy efficiency, between 80 to 90% of the world’s energy need of all buildings and approximately 50% of traffic can be reduced and substituted by renewable energies.

Updated: August 22, 2015 — 3:15 am