PV outside

The PV on these buildings and installations is highly visible from the outside.

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Figure 4.11 This building in Tubingen, Germany, proudly proclaims its solar identity (EPIA/BP Solar).

 

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Figure 4.12 Traditional stone and PV in harmony: a building at the Technical University of Catalunya, Spain (EPIA/BP Solar).

 

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Figure 4.13 Architects in countries with a tradition of social housing can spread their influence widely. This example is in Amersfoort, The Netherlands (IEA-PVPS).

 

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Figure 4.14 A Swedish supermarket embraces PV technology (EPIA/NAPS).

 

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Figure 4.15 A huge solar pergola at the World Forum of Culture in Barcelona, Spain, supports a 4000 m2 PV array (EPIA/Isofoton).

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Figure 4.16 The Sydney Olympic Games brought PV to the attention of millions with solar-powered lighting and more than six hundred 1 kWp arrays on athletes’ houses (EPIA/BP Solar).

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Figure 4.17 This eco-home in Oxford, England, uses PV modules, water-heating panels and passive solar design to reduce its external energy requirements almost to zero (EPIA/BP Solar).

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Figure 4.18 PV louvres replace standard glass shading to provide a dual function (EPIA/BP Solar).

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Figure 4.19 A PV-covered walkway at an exhibition centre in Japan (IEA-PVPS).

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Figure 4.20 A 1.6 km PV array gives added purpose to a highway sound barrier in Germany (EPIA/Isofoton).

PV inside

 

The PV on these buildings has a big impact on the internal space.

 

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Figure 4.21 Sunlight and shadow: a striking interior at the Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands (EPIA/ECN).

 

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Figure 4.22 In harmony with nature: 30 kWp of glass/glass modules at the National Maritime Aquarium, Plymouth, England (IEA-PVPS).

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Figure 4.23 Patterned sunlight at the University of East Anglia, England (EPIA/BP Solar).

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Figure 4.24 Solar study: the University of East Anglia, England (EPIA/BP Solar).

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Figure 4.25 An office interior in Germany (EPIA/Schott Solar).

Figure 4.26 Thin-film semi-transparent modules allow dappled light into this building in Germany (EPIA/Schott Solar).

Подпись: Figure 4.26 Thin-film semi-transparent modules allow dappled light into this building in Germany (EPIA/Schott Solar).

Figure 4.27 Customer satisfaction: a shop in Tours, France (EPIA/Total Energie).

4.5 Large PV power plants

Подпись: Figure 4.27 Customer satisfaction: a shop in Tours, France (EPIA/Total Energie).
Подпись: 4.5 Large PV power plants

The current growth, in number and size, of grid-connected power plants is extraordinary.3 Until quite recently the idea of a PV plant generating megawatts seemed unlikely to most people, but by 2008 there were around 1000 plants worldwide rated at 1 MWp and above. The great driver of this revolution has been the generous financing of PV electricity in certain countries, most notably Germany, Spain and the USA. Germany and the USA had seen steady increases in capacity for many years; then, in 2007­2008, a remarkable surge took place in Spain due to its government’s introduction of a highly attractive tariff of 0.44 euro cents per kWh. In 2008 alone Spain installed 2.7 GWP of PV including some 700 MWP of power plants rated above 10MWp, in total equivalent to about 50 Wp (a smallish PV module) for every man, woman, and child in the country! When we recall that cumulative global PV production only passed the

Figure 4.28 A Spanish power plant rated at 1.5 MWp. This is close to the average size of large PV plants installed internationally by 2008 (IEA-PVPS).

Подпись: Figure 4.28 A Spanish power plant rated at 1.5 MWp. This is close to the average size of large PV plants installed internationally by 2008 (IEA-PVPS).
1 GWp milestone in 1999 (see Figure 1.11), Spain’s achievement in a single year is remarkable. It must be added, however, that the Spanish government reduced the power plant tariff substantially towards the end of 2008, slant­ing the future more towards roofs and facades, and placed a cap of 500 MWp on annual PV installation for the following few years. Even though the immediate boom was over, Spain’s experience surely changed international perceptions of what is possible, and provided a massive boost to the PV industry.

Other countries active in PV power plant installation are pushing global cumulative capacity into the multi-gigawatt era. Germany and the USA are especially prominent but Japan, Italy, Portugal, France, Greece, and Korea all deserve mention.3 The international situation in 2008 is summarised by Figure 4.29 for plants above 1MWP. Part (a) shows that a few of the largest plants already exceeded 40 MWp, but the great majority (830) were in the 1-5 MWp range. These, together with a large number of lesser instal­lations not shown in the diagram (some on rooftops), produced an overall average size of about 1.25 MWp. About three quarters of plants have static

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Figure 4.29 (a) The distribution of large PV power plant capacities early in 2008; (b) the contributions to global installed capacity of Europe, the USA, and Asia.

Figure 4.30 The Spanish 9.5 MWp Milagro Solar Farm with its owners (IEA-PVPS).

Подпись: 830 Figure 4.29 (a) The distribution of large PV power plant capacities early in 2008; (b) the contributions to global installed capacity of Europe, the USA, and Asia.
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arrays; the rest use single – or double-axis tracking, the great majority without concentration. Part (b) of the figure shows the distribution of installed capacity between Europe (mainly Germany and Spain), the USA, and Asia (including a small contribution from the rest of the World).

In such a dynamic situation it is hard to give an accurate snapshot, and even harder to predict what will happen in the coming decade – apart from the

Figure 4.31 La Magascona solar farm in Spain generates 23 MWp (IEA-PVPS).

Подпись: Figure 4.31 La Magascona solar farm in Spain generates 23 MWp (IEA-PVPS).
near certainty that global power plant capacity will rise dramatically, accompanied by an increase in both peak and average plant sizes. Plants rated at hundreds of MWp are already on the drawing board and in 2009 it was announced that an installation planned for Mongolia will eventually exceed 1 GWp in capacity. There is no doubt that large PV power plants have come of age.

References

1. S. R. Wenham et al. Applied Photovoltaics, Earthscan: London (2007).

2. F. Antony et al. Photovoltaicsfor Professionals, Earthscan: London (2007).

3. pvresources. com. Large-scale Photovoltaic Power Plants, Annual Reports (2007, 2008).

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