Usually the solar battery is meant the term of the panel of photo-electric converters (photo cells). The purpose of solar batteries is direct transformation of sunlight to the electric power.
Structure of photo-electric installation
The principle of their work reminds operation of the transistor. The basic and key element thus which can provide this effect – is a semi-conductor material. The most widespread material – silicon. Silicon for production of solar batteries can be single-crystal or polycrystalline. Outwardly single-crystal silicon can be distinguished on uniform black gray to color of a surface of a photo cell. This type of a material grow up in industrial conditions then a special thread cut on thin plates. The second type represents more modern generation of the elements made of more available polycrystalline silicon. Manufacturing passes a molding method. The material as, a surface with a non-uniform dark blue modulation looks. Besides, in silicon add in a certain quantity arsenic and pine forest.
The solar battery and photoeffect So, for receiving the electric power from the solar battery it is necessary to carry out a photoeffect. This process is connected with the physical phenomenon of p-n of transition. Structurally the photo cell consists of two plates of silicon. One of used plates contains atoms of pine forest, and the second atoms of arsenic. Thus the top layer is characterized by a surplus of electrons (area of electrons), and bottom – their shortage (so-called hole area). In this case on border of these plates electronic and hole transition (by p-n transition) is supported. As a result of hit on a photo cell of sunshine (photons) there is an illumination of plates and both layers cooperate as electrodes of the ordinary battery – there is EDS. The ray of sunlight raises electrons which start to move from one plate to another. For removal of electric energy on both surfaces напаивают thin layers of the conductor also connect to loading. Development of this energy is not connected with chemical reactions therefore such solar battery can serve quite long term. This branch of science closely studies questions which could improve electric power development in a photo cell by means of increase of efficiency of installations. For this purpose in tonkosloyny cells of an element can contain not only silicon, but also gallium, arsenide, cadmium, copper, selenium and many other materials. As a big problem on a way of improvement of efficiency of solar batteries, is superfluous heat which arises when heating plates of photo cells. Many ways are developed for branch of this heat from the solar battery. After all the efficiency of panels in rare instances exceeds 30 %. Types of solar batteries in the market can be found Now five types of solar batteries in which various materials and photo cells are applied. The greatest popularity was received by solar batteries from polycrystalline photo cells. Efficiency of such panels on the average makes 12-14 %. Panels from single-crystal photo cells are characterized by higher efficiency (14-16 %). Such panels are a little more expensive than panels from polycrystalline silicon. As photo cells have a form of a polygon and because of it not completely fill space of the solar battery that results in lower efficiency of all battery in relation to one cell of a photo cell. Solar batteries from amorphous silicon have the smallest efficiency (6-8 %), but at the same time have the lowest prime cost of made energy. Solar batteries on a basis Telluride of Cadmium (CdTe) represent the thin-film production technology of solar panels. Semi-conductor layers put on the panel in thickness in only some hundred microns. Production is less harmful to environment. Efficiency of solar batteries on a basis Telluride of Cadmium makes about 11-12 %. Solar batteries on the basis of a mix India, Gallia, Copper, Selenium (CIGS) as is the thin-film production technology of photo cells. Efficiency varies from 10 to 15 %. This technology is still a little widespread on the market, however very quickly flutters. A little video data about that how occurs process of production of the solar battery