The power of a single solar cell being small, several of them must be electrically associated to make a practical generator. The module is the building unit for generators that can be purchased in the market, i. e. it is the real PV product. Performance and lifetime of PV systems depend on the protection that module construction offers to the active photovoltaic devices.
The basic module fabrication procedure in use by most manufacturers was developed three decades ago and is briefly described below. Modules for special applications (building integration, marine operation, etc) require slight modifications of the process and the materials.