5. Outlook

The quest and demand for clean and economical energy sources have increased interest in the development of solar applications. DSSCs have proved to be an alternative approach to the conventional silicon based solar cells. Research on DSSCs has grown rapidly in the recent years due to the several attractive figures of this interesting field: The international awareness of the necessity to develop new technologies in Renewable Energy Resources; The need of easy and inexpensive procedures for fabricating Solar cells; The fact that DSSCs can be transparent so that they can be integrated into mobile or immobile constructions as Photovoltaic Windows. All these features are carried by DSSCs and for this reason they are popular and they are expected to be even more popular in the near future. Till then some issues have to be overcome in order this technology considerably has commercial interest. The overall efficiency of ~12% for small size cells (~0.2cm2) which substantially gets lower (~5%) when modules of DSSCs are prepared is a reason for further improvement is many stages of cells preparation. Improvement of the cells is focused on (a) the enhancement of electron transport and electron lifetime in the mesoporous metal oxide (b) design of new high-extinction coefficient dyes which will effectively cover the whole range of visible light and near infra red and finally (c) new stable solid electrolytes which will have effective penetration into semiconductors pores and enhanced. Moreover, in large scale applications the effective collection of the current is also an issue as the internal resistance from conductive glass substrates and metal grids which are necessary for current collection and need to be covered from corrosive electrolyte, drastically eliminate the DSSCs efficiency if they are not seriously taken into account.

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