W-module

It also concerns a series connection of the cells while inner-connections are avoided. Unlike the z-module and monolith module that are manufactured in the same direction to the adjacent cell, the W-module secures a structure that are in an opposite direction of the adjacent cell. Hence, it does not require direct wiring or bus electrode and realizes high reliability since the inner-cell contact occurs directly on the substrate. It also secures a structure to maximize the available area to record relatively high conversion efficiency. It is able to simultaneously manufacture multiple cells and can also manufacture cell and module at the same time. It entails shortcomings as well that it needs to adjust the output since the amount of light absorption is different in each serially connected cell and the colorants of adjacent cells are different. The main disadvantage of this structure is the differences referred for currents of single cells which are illuminated from back side and front size resulting different values of current because of the different light transmittance of the two cells.

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