The application of inorganic nanomaterials in quasi-solid/solid-state electrolytes

The power conversion efficiency of DSCs with organic solvent-based electrolyte was reported to exceed 11% (Gratzel, 2004). However, the presence of organic liquid electrolytes in cells causes problems, such as leakage, evaporation of solvent, high-temperature instability, and flammability, and therefore results in practical limitations to sealing and long-term operation. At present, many attempts have been made to substitute liquid electrolytes with solid state electrolytes (e. g. p-type semiconductors, organic hole-transport materials, solid polymer electrolytes, and plastic crystal electrolytes) or quasi-solid-state electrolytes (e. g. polymer gel, low-molecular-weight gel). Here, we focus our attention on the application of inorganic nanomaterials in quasi-solid/solid-state electrolytes, including p-type semiconductor nanoparticles as solid-state electrolytes and solidification of liquid electrolyte by inorganic nanoparticles.