Glossary

Absorber: The layers used to absorb sunlight.

Acreage: The total acres used up by a photovoltaic system.

Activated shelf life: The time it takes for a charged battery to reach an unusable level when stored at a specific temperature.

Activation voltage: The voltage that the controller will operate at to protect the batteries.

Air mass: In terms of solar energy, the air mass relates to the path length of solar radiation through the atmosphere. For instance, an air mass of 1.0 means that the sun is directly overhead and the radiation travels through one atmosphere of thickness.

Alternating current (AC): Electrical current that constantly reverses direction of flow.

Ambient temperature: The air temperature of the surrounding area.

Ammeter: A device used to measure current flow.

Amorphous silicon: A thin film solar photovoltaic material that has a glassy structure.

Array: Solar modules connected together to form a single structure.

Array current: The electrical current output when a photovoltaic array is exposed to sunlight.

Array operating voltage: The voltage of a photovoltaic array when exposed to sunlight and feeding a load.

Autonomous system: A photovoltaic system that operates independent of any other energy­generating source.

Azimuth: The angle between the north direction and the projection of the array surface into the horizontal plane, measured clockwise from north. A due south facing array would be 180° azimuth.

Balance of system (BOS): All of the components of a photovoltaic system minus the solar module.

Battery capacity: The total number of ampere-hours (Ah) that a charged battery can output.

British Thermal Unit (BTU): The amount of heat energy it takes to raise one pound of water from a temperature of 60°F to 61°F at 1 atmosphere pressure.

Cell: The basic unit of a photovoltaic module or a battery. The cell contains the necessary materials to produce electricity.

Cell efficiency: The ratio of electrical energy produced by a photovoltaic cell to the energy contained in the sunlight that reaches the photovoltaic cell.

Cell junction: The area of contact between two layers (positive and negative) of a photovoltaic cell.

Cloud enhancement: The increase in solar intensity from reflected light due to nearby clouds.

Cogeneration: The joint production of electrical and heat energy at a single location, resulting in a more efficient use of thermal energy.

Concentrator: A photovoltaic device that uses optical elements (mirrors, lenses, etc.) to increase the amount of light that reaches a solar cell. Concentrators track the sun and reflect or enhance only the direct sunlight.

Crystalline silicon: Photovoltaic cell material that is made from a single crystal or polycrystalline ingot of silicon.

Days of storage: The number of days a stand-alone system will power a specified load without any solar energy input.

Dealer: A retailer of photovoltaic products and/or systems.

Design month: The month in which the amount of insolation and load requires the maximum energy from the array.

Developer segment: Types of developers—utility, government, commercial, or residential.

Diffuse insolation: The incident sunlight received from scattering due to obstructions in the atmosphere (clouds, fog, dust, etc.).

Diffuse radiation: The incident radiation received from the sun after reflection and scattering due to obstructions in the atmosphere (clouds, fog, dust, etc.) and on the ground.

Direct insolation: The sunlight falling directly on a collector.

Direct radiation: The light that has traveled in a straight path from the sun (also known as direct beam radiation).

Disconnect: The switch used to connect or disconnect the different components of a photovoltaic system.

Distributed systems: Electrical systems that are installed at or near the locations that the energy will be used. Residential photovoltaic systems are distributed systems.

Distributor: A wholesaler of photovoltaic products.

Downtime: The time when a photovoltaic system cannot provide power to the load. Usually measured as hours per year or as a percentage.

DSSC: Dye-sensitized solar cell.

Duty cycle: The ratio of active to total time for a photovoltaic system.

EG or EGS: Electronic grade silicon.

EVA: An encapsulant used between the glass and solar cells in photovoltaic modules.

Feed-in tariff: An economic policy that is created to promote active investment in and production of renewable energy sources.

Fixed tilt array: A solar photovoltaic array set at an angle to the horizontal.

Flat-plate PV: A photovoltaic array that does not contain concentrating devices and therefore responds to direct and diffuse sunlight.

Fresnel lens: A concentrating lens that is positioned above and is concave to photovoltaic material in order to direct light onto the material.

Gen 3: Third-generation solar cells.

Gigawatt (GW): A measurement of power equal to a 1000 million watts.

Gigawatt-hour (GWh): A measurement of energy. One gigawatt-hour is equal to 1 gigawatt being used over the course of an hour.

Grid-connected: An energy producing system that is connected to the utility transmission grid (grid-tied).

HE: High efficiency.

HF: High reflector.

High-voltage disconnect: The voltage level for which the controller will disconnect the array to prevent the batteries from overcharging.

Hybrid system: A photovoltaic system that also includes some other electricity generating power source.

Incentive programs: Incentive program that the solar project is entitled to.

Incident light: The light that shines on the surface of a photovoltaic cell or module.

Independent power system: An energy generation system that is independent of the main power grid.

Insolation: The amount of sunlight that reaches an area, usually measured in watt hours per square meter per day.

Installers: Market and customize photovoltaic systems for installation.

Integrator: Combines photovoltaic components into a complete system.

Inverter: Converts the DC power from the photovoltaic array to AC power.

Irradiance: The solar power incident on a surface (kilowatts per square meter). Irradiance multiplied by time gives insolation.

JDA: Joint development agreement.

Joule (J): The energy conveyed by 1 watt of power for 1 s.

Junction diode: Solar cells are junction diodes in that they are semiconductor devices that have a junction and a built-in potential that passes current better in one direction than the other.

Kilowatt (kW): A unit of electrical power equal to 1000 watts.

Kilowatt-hour: A unit that describes the amount of energy that derives from a power of 1 kilowatt acting over the period of 1 h.

kWh output: The estimated first-year kilowatt hour output of a photovoltaic system.

Langley: A unit of solar irradiance; 1 calorie per square centimeter.

Light trapping: The trapping of light inside a semiconductor material by reflecting and refracting the light at critical angles.

Load: The electrical power that is consumed at any given moment or averaged over a

specified period. The load that an electric generating system supplies varies greatly by time of day and to an extent, by season or time of year.

Low-voltage disconnect (LVD): The voltage level at which the controller will disconnect the load from the batteries to prevent over-discharging.

Market: The quantity of modules delivered to final photovoltaic installation sites, which includes modules awaiting installation or grid connection.

mc-Si: Multicrystalline silicon.

Megawatt (MW): A measurement of power that is equal to 1 million watts.

Megawatt-hour (MWh): A measurement of power that incorporates time. One megawatt – hour is equal to 1 megawatt being used for a period of 1 h.

MG-Si: Metallurgical grade silicon.

Microgroove: A small groove on the surface of a cell that can be filled with metal for contacts.

Module: An encapsulated panel that contains electrically connected photovoltaic cells.

Monocrystalline solar cell (mono-Si): A type of solar cell made from a thin slice of a single large crystal of silicon.

Multijunction device: A photovoltaic device containing one or more cell junctions that may be different in nature but are optimized to absorb particular parts of the solar spectrum in order to achieve higher overall cell efficiency.

Net metering: The practice of exporting surplus solar power to the electricity grid. The homeowner electric meter either physically moves backwards or a financial credit will be applied to the homeowner’s electric bill.

Normal operating cell temperature (NOCT): The estimated temperature of a solar photovoltaic module when it is in operation.

One-axis tracking: A photovoltaic system structure that rotates on a single axis in order to track the movement of the sun.

Panel: Used interchangeably with “module.”

Passive solar: Utilizing part of a building as solar collector, as opposed to active solar, such as photovoltaics.

Peak sun hours: The number of hours per day when solar irradiance averages 1000W/m2.

Photovoltaic (PV): Any device that produces free electrons when exposed to light.

Photovoltaic array: Photovoltaic modules connected together in a single structure.

Photovoltaic cell: The smallest discrete part of a photovoltaic module that is responsible for the conversion of light into electrical energy.

Polycrystalline silicon: A material used to make photovoltaic cells which consists of many crystals.

Power purchase agreement (PPA): When a solar company covers the full cost of installing and maintaining a solar system. In return, the host customer agrees to buy the power produced by the system.

Pyranometer: An instrument used for measuring global solar irradiance.

Semiconductor: A material that has an electrical conductivity in between that of a metal and an insulator. Semiconductors for photovoltaic cells include silicon, gallium arsenide, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride.

Solar energy: Electromagnetic energy transmitted from the sun. The energy must be captured and converted to AC electrical power.

Solar thermal: A form of power generation that uses concentrated sunlight to heat fluid that may be used to drive a motor or turbine.

Substrate: The material on which a photovoltaic cell is made.

Superstrate: The covering on the sun side of a photovoltaic module providing protection from environmental hazards.

System operating voltage: The output voltage of a photovoltaic array under load.

Thin film: A thin layer of semiconductor material, generally a few microns or less, used to make photovoltaic cells. Examples include copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, gallium arsenide, and amorphous silicon.

Tilt angle: The angle at which a solar array is tilted towards the sun.

Two-axis tracking: A photovoltaic array tracking system that is able to rotate independently about two axes (vertical and horizontal).

UMG: Upgraded metallurgical grade silicon.

Volt (V): The amount of force required to drive a steady current.

Wafer: A thin sheet of photovoltaic material made from cutting from a single crystal or ingot.

Watt (W): The standard unit of measure for power either for capacity or demand.

Zenith angle: The angle between the sun (the point of interest) and the zenith (directly overhead).

[1] See http://www. reuters. com/article/2012/04/13/solar-prices-idUSL2E8FAD0 X 20120413.

[2] See Lorenz, A. 1366 Technologies, speaking at the 2012 MIT Energy Conference; Lovins, A. Reinventing Fire: Bold Business Solutions for the New Energy Era, 2012.

[3] http://www. pv-magazine. com/news/details/beitrag/china-sets-10-gw-installed-capacity-target-for- 2013_100009803/#axzz2VMqehJJD.

[4] id.

[5] SEIA and GTM Research, March 12, 2012.

[6]http://www. madehow. com/Volume-1/Solar-Cell. html.

[7]http://www. irena. org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/RE_Technologies_Cost_Analysis-CSP. pdf.

[8]http://www. renewableenergyworld. com/rea/blog/post/2013/03/how-solar-pv-is-winning-over-csp.

[9]http://www. renewablegreenenergypower. com/solar-energy-facts-concentrated-solar-power-csp-vs-photo-

voltaic-pv-panels/.

[10]http://www. irena. org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/RE_Technologies_Cost_Analysis-CSP. pdf.

[11] http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Solar_water_heating, citing eere. energy. gov.

[12] Direct systems heat potable water in the collectors and store in a tank. Indirect systems heat a secondary, nonpotable fluid (often propylene glycol) that heats a tank of water.

[13]http://www. seia. org/research-resources/solar-industry-data.

[14]http://www. irena. org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/RE_Technologies_Cost_Analysis-CSP. pdf.

[15]http://www. irena. org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/RE_Technologies_Cost_Analysis-CSP. pdf.

[16]http://www. solarpaces. org/CSP_Technology/csp_technology. htm.

[17] Assessment of parabolic trough and power tower solar technology cost and performance forecasts (http://www. nrel. gov/solar/parabolic_trough. html).

[18] Carson, R. (1962). Silent spring. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett.

Solar Energy Markets. DOI: http://dx. doi. org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397174-6.00003-9

© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[19] Dunlap, R. E., 1994. International attitudes towards environment and development. In: Bergesen, H. O., Parmann, G. (Eds.), Green Globe Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 115-126.

[20] See Baylis, J., Smith, S., 2005. The Globalization of World Politics, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 454-455.

[21] Dunlap, at p. 115.

[22] id.

[23] Nisbet, M. C., Myers, T., 2007. Twenty years of public opinion about global warming. Public Opin. Q. 71 (3), 444-470.

[24] id.

[25] Washington Post Poll, 2007.

[26] id.

[27] See Nisbet and Myers (2007).

[28] SEIA National Solar Poll, September 2012.

[29] id.

[30] id.

[31] id.

[32] http://www. jsonline. com/business/hybrid-car-sales-not-as-dependent-on-gas-prices- d16eo2f-165867746.html.

[33] id.

17http://www. harrisinteractive. com/NewsRoom/HarrisPolls/tabid/447/mid/1508/articleId/1059/ctl/

ReadCustom%20Default/Default. aspx.

[35]http://ec. europa. eu/public_opinion/flash/fl_360_en. pdf.

[36] id.

[37] id. at p. 101.

[38] id. at pp. 102-103.

[39]http://news. xinhuanet. com/english/2007-08/20/content_6570747.htm.

[40] BCG, powering autos to 2020.

[41]http://www. nielsen. com/us/en/newswire/2011/the-next-generation-of-chinese-car-buyers-are-looking-

for-style. html.

[42] BCG, powering autos to 2020.

[43]http://www. nrel. gov/director/pdfs/anu_public_lecture_10312011.pdf.

[44] Frankfurt School, UNEP Collaborating Centre, and Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2013. Available from http://www. unep. org/pdf/GTR-UNEP-FS-BNEF2.pdf.

[45] id. at p. 11.

[46] id.

[47] id.

[48] Cleantech Group’s i3 Platform.

[49]http://www. unep. org/pdf/GTR-UNEP-FS-BNEF2.pdf, at p. 11.

[50] id.

[51]Teckenburg, E. et at., 2011. Renewable energy policy country profiles. Intelligent Energy Europe, p. 119.

[52]OECD Economic Surveys, Germany, February 2012. Available from http://www. keepeek. com/Digital- Asset-Management/oecd/economics/oecd-economic-surveys-germany-2012_eco_surveys-deu-2012-en.

[53]Battelle, R&D Magazine, EU R&D Scoreboard.

[54]Gonzalez, A., Johnson, K., 2009. Spain’s solar-power collapse dims subsidy model. Wall Street J.

[55]http ://www. eia. gov/todayinenergy/detail. cfm? id=l 1471.

[56] http://www. dailyfinance. com/2011/05/27/ldk-solar-european-austerity-cloudier-forecast/.

[57] http://www. huffingtonpost. coni/2012/04/05/italy-green-energy-incentives_n_l 406176.html.

[58] http://www. reuters. coni/article/2012/04/05/renewables-italy-idUSL6E8F4C7420120405.

(continued)

[59] http://www. renewableenergyworld. com/rea/news/article/2012/12/italy-abandons-rps-ad opts – system-of-feed-in-tariffs.

[60] http ://www. renewableenergyworld, com/rea/news/article/2012/12/italy-abandons-rps-ad opts – system-of-feed-in-tariffs.

[61] http ://w w w. gse. it/en/feedi ntariff/Photovoltaic/FifthFeed-inScheme/Pages/default. aspx.

[62] http://www. pvtech. org/friday_focus/friday_focus_the_future_of_the_unsubsidised_italian_solar_market.

[63] Reporting by Svetlana Kovalyova, editing by David Cowell. Source: http://www. reuters. com/article/ 2012/04/17/italy-carbontax-id AFL6E 8FHALR20120417.

[64] http://www. renewable energy world. com/rea/ne ws/article/2013/06/can-italy-keep-its – renewables-investors.

,0http://www. pv-tech. org/friday_focus/friday_focus_the_future_of_the_unsubsidised_italian_solar_market.

[66] http://www. pv-tech. org/friday_focus/friday_focus_the_future_of_the_unsubsidised_italian_solar_market.

[67] Martinot, E., Junfeng, L., 2010. Renewable energy policy update for China. Renewable EnergyWorld (retrieved 14.11.10).

[68]http://www. mondaq. com/x/159390/Renewables/China+Policy+Shedding+Light+On+The+Recently+

Enacted+Solar+FeedlnTariff.

[69] http://www. gsb. stanford. edu/news/headlines/chinas-solar-panel-boom-bust.

[70]http://english. people. com. cn/90778/8273874.html.

[71]http://www. eenews. net/stories/1059983772.

[72]http://www. worldwatch. org/renewable-energy-continued-growth-2010-despite-recession.

[73] http://www. greentechmedia. com/articles/read/Rest-in-Peace-The-List-of-Deceased-Solar-Companies.

[74]ENF Market Survey, Chinese Cell and Panel Manufacturers, 2012.

4,These woes come on the heels of the filing of trade sanctions by the LTnited States and ELI against China for its alleged market manipulation. This, in turn, has led China to file sanctions against the LTnited States for its prac­tices in selling polysilicon (among other, nonsolar items). The chilling effect of these cases is yet to be known.

[76] http://thediplomat. com/pacific-money/2012/12/08/lights-out-for-chinas-solar-power-industry/.

[77]http://www. dsireusa. org/incentives/incentive. cfm? Incentive_Code=US02F&re=1&ee=1.

2http://www. dsireusa. org/incentives/incentive. cfm? Incentive_Code=US52F&re=1&ee=1.

[79] id.

[80] id.

[81]http://www. dsireusa. org/incentives/incentive. cfm? Incentive_Code=US56F&re=1&ee=1.

[82]http://www. dsireusa. org/incentives/incentive. cfm? Incentive_Code=US48F&re=1&ee=1.

[83] Established in 1995, DSIRE is currently operated and funded by the NC Solar Center at NC State University, with support from the Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Inc. DSIRE is funded in part by the US Department of Energy. DSIRE data provides the basis for this section.

[84] Gouchoe, S., Everette, V, Haynes, R., 2002. Case Studies on the Effectiveness of State Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy. North Carolina Solar Center and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Raleigh, NC.

[85]http://www. dsireusa. org/solar/solarpolicyguide/?id=13.

[86] id.

16http://thesolarfoundation. org/research/national-solar-jobs-census-2012.

17http://www. dsireusa. org/solar/solarpolicyguide/?id=10.

[89] id.

[90] Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Clean Energy States Alliance, 2008. Property Tax Assessments as a Finance Vehicle for Residential PV Installations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Clean Energy States Alliance.

[91]http://www. dsireusa. org/solar/solarpolicyguide/?id=26.

[92] A lack of economies of scale is reported to be a reason why US solar manufacturing has fallen behind its global competitors.

[93] http://www. seia. org/news/new-report-finds-us-solar-energy-installations-soared-109-2011-1855- megawatts.

[94]http://www. brightstarsolar. net/2011/03/us-solar-installed-capacity-sees-fastest-growth-in-2010/.

[95] GTM Research/SEIA, 2011 US Solar Market Insight.

[96]http://www. gtai. de/GTAI/Navigation/EN/Invest/Industries/Energy-environmental-technologies/solar-

industry. html.

[97] Germany Trade and Invest, Industry Overview: The Photovoltaic Market in Germany, Issue 2013/2014.

[98] id. at p. 11.

[99] id.

[100] Seel et al., Why are residential PV prices in Germany so much lower than in the United States? A scop­ing analysis. Available from http://emp. lbl. gov/sites/all/files/german-us-pv-price-ppt. pdf, p. 6.

[101] id.

[102] Germany Trade and Invest, Industry Overview: The Photovoltaic Market in Germany, Issue 2013/2014.

[103] id.

[104]http://www. europeanvoice. com/article/2013/june/breaking-news-eu-imposes-tariffs-on-chinese-

solar/77418.aspx.

[105] http://www. guardian. co. uk/environment/2011/sep/12/how-china-dominates-solar-power.

[106]http://www. eia. gov/forecasts/ieo/world. cfm.

Solar Energy Markets. DOI: http://dx. doi. org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397174-6.00008-8

© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[107] id.

[108] id.

[109]http://consortiumnews. com/2013/07/09/us-energy-renaissance-shifts-geopolitics/.

[110] id.

[111] id.

[112] id.

[113] id.

[114] Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Global Renewable Energy Market Outlook 2013, Fact Pack, April 26, 2013.

[115] id. at p. 3.

[116] id.

[117] id.

[118] Energy Information Administration, Medium Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2012, p. 11. Available from http://www. iea. org/textbase/npsum/mtrenew2012Sum. pdf.

[119] id. at p. 14.

[120] id.

[121] id.

[122] U. S. Solar Market Insight Report: 2012 Year in Review, Solar Energy Industries Association and GTM Research, Executive Summary.

[123] id.

[124] id.

[125] id.

[126] id.

[127] id.

[128]http://www. seia. org/research-resources/solar-industry-data.

[129] Ernst & Young, Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices, November 2012, at p. 39.

[130] id. at p. 29.

[131] id. at p. 26.

[132] id.

[133] id. at pp. 34—35.

[134] id. at p. 56.

[135]http://www. unep. org/pdf/GTR-UNEP-FS-BNEF2.pdf at pp. 57-58.

[136] id. at p. 58.

[137] id.

[138] id. at p. 59.

[139] id. at p. 60.

[140]http://www. bloomberg. com/news/2012-01-12/clean-energy-investment-rises-to-a-record-260-billion-on-

solar. html.

[141] Bazilian et al. Re-considering the Economics of Photovoltaic Power. Bloomberg New Energy Finance, 2012.

[142] id. at p. 3.

[143] id.

[144] id.

[145] id. at p. 4.

[146] id. at p. 7.

[147] id. at p. 8.

[148]http://www. forbes. com/sites/justingerdes/2012/05/24/solar-power-more-competitive-than-decision-mak-

ers-or-consumers-realize/.

[149] Bazilian et al. at p. 9.

[150]https://energy. stanford. edu/sites/default/files/StefenReichelstein. pdf.

[151] Bazilian et al. at p. 10.

[152] id.

[153] id. at p. 13.

[154] id.

[155] McDonnell, P. Making sense of PV parity, quantifying solar’s competitiveness. Renewable Energy World, April 23, 2013, p. 3.

[156] id. at p. 1.

[157] id. at p. 2.

[158] id. at p. 4.

[159] Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Global Renewable Energy Market Outlook 2013, Fact Pack, April 26, 2013.