Daily Archives March 5, 2016

GOVERNMENT SPONSORSHIP OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

1.15 Overview

Although the automotive industry is a vigorous sponsor of research and development—worldwide, nearly $20 billion U. S. worth in 1997—governments throughout the world sponsor additional automotive R&D, both separately from and in partnership with the industry. This work focuses primarily on four areas: emissions, safety, fuels, and fuel economy. Within the past few years, government sponsorship of automotive R&D has moved sharply in the direction of attempting to advance the performance and cost-effectiveness of automotive fuel cells, which address three of the four areas: emissions, fuels, and fuel economy...

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Power Quality

Evolving demands for high-quality electricity in a range of sensitive industrial processes and informa­tion technologies has refocused attention on the need for extremely high-quality power. DE technologies can help respond to this demand in a number of ways. The use of DE technologies can avoid move­ment of electricity where the majority of power quality problems, especially voltage sags, occur. Energy storage devices are a DE resource that is often used to provide uninterrupted power supply either as a support to the power grid during periods of very short term instability or as a bridge to allow stand-by DE technologies to begin operation and ramp up to meet the required load.

TABLE VI

Power Quality Power Quality Power Quality

Potential Robustness Advantages and Disadvantages of DE Systems

Note: T&D, transmissio...

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Robustness

The robustness of an energy generation and distribu­tion network has received considerable attention for its performance under conditions of conflict, whether in terms of war or terrorist events. A system based on DE would do little to alleviate dependence on oil imports, which is primarily related to transportation. On an individual generation unit basis, the small size and low profile of DE units make them a less important target. Although DE can be powered by a range of renewable, waste, and fossil fuels, the reliance on a natural gas infrastructure has been debated and compared to the system robustness of the electricity network. Table VI details some of the advantages and disadvantages of a natural gas DE network.

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OTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF DE

1.4 Reliability

Reliability considerations for DE can be divided into plant and system impacts. At the plant level, high levels of availability of DE units are achieved through remote monitoring and real-time control. As there can be a large number of DE units, reliability can be ensured for scheduled maintenance and unscheduled outages by transferring the electri­city load to the remaining DE units. Building or process management systems can turn off nonessen­tial loads if required. Energy storage devices can also be used to maintain supply for short periods. Finally, the dual-fuel capabilities of many DE technologies or the use of different DE units at the same location can ensure supply in the case of fuel disruptions.

In comparing DE reliability to a centralized electricity network, ...

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ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DE

DE technologies exhibit a range of emission char­acteristics. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions depend only on the carbon or sulfur content of the fuel and the efficiency of generation and supply. Local pollutants including nitrogen oxides (NOx) also depend on the specifics of the combustion or generation process. The relative environmental performance of DE depends on what centralized electricity technology and fuel they are competing against and whether the DE technology is being used for electricity only or CHP applications. If it is a DE-CHP application, then the emissions from the heat boiler plant must also be factored in. Higher relative DE efficiencies are also aided by the avoidance of electricity distribution losses...

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INFORMATION PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE HIGHER FUEL ECONOMY

1.11 Overview

A variety of information programs exist in the major automobile markets to assist potential purchasers of new cars in comparing fuel economy characteristics (and other attributes) among competing vehicles. However, there is no evidence that the existence of such systems plays a significant role in consumer choice of vehicles. For example, in 1995, the light – duty fleets in the two European countries with fuel economy labeling systems (Sweden and the United Kingdom) were the least efficient in Europe (accord­ing to International Energy Agency data).

1.12 United States

The fuel economy information program in the United States is the oldest and most highly developed of the major vehicle markets...

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VEHICLE TAX INCENTIVES PROMOTING HIGHER FUEL ECONOMY

1.6 Overview

A number of countries have tax programs designed to reward purchasers and owners of fuel-efficient vehicles (or to penalize purchasers and owners of fuel – inefficient vehicles) by tying vehicle purchase and/or ownership taxes either directly to fuel economy or to vehicle features associated with fuel economy (e. g., engine displacement). Aside from taxes aimed speci­fically at fuel economy or associated vehicle char­acteristics, all countries in the major auto markets have vehicle taxes that are based on the total purchase

VEHICLE TAX INCENTIVES PROMOTING HIGHER FUEL ECONOMY

5 4

3 – 2 1 0

Canada France Germany Japan United United

Kingdom States

FIGURE 3 Gasoline prices for selected countries, 1990 and 2001, showing effect of taxes. From Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (2002)...

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Valuing DE within Electricity Networks

The benefits or costs that DE technologies bring to an electricity network are a function of the level of penetration. If DE is limited to a relatively small percentage of overall capacity, it can be incorporated into the existing paradigm of remote generation of electricity with extensive transmission and distribu­tion networks. Within this paradigm, DE can fulfill a number of functions in addition to providing elect­ricity and heat to individual customers. These include

Подпись: Netherlands UKПодпись:Подпись:Valuing DE within Electricity Networksgrid reinforcement, standby power, meeting peak demands, remote sites, and hedging against fuel volatility.

The use of DE in areas where it is difficult or expensive to upgrade the distribution network can alleviate bottlenecks in the system and enable greater system capacity and reliability...

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