Daily Archives March 5, 2016
Although the automotive industry is a vigorous sponsor of research and development—worldwide, nearly $20 billion U. S. worth in 1997—governments throughout the world sponsor additional automotive R&D, both separately from and in partnership with the industry. This work focuses primarily on four areas: emissions, safety, fuels, and fuel economy. Within the past few years, government sponsorship of automotive R&D has moved sharply in the direction of attempting to advance the performance and cost-effectiveness of automotive fuel cells, which address three of the four areas: emissions, fuels, and fuel economy...Read More
Evolving demands for high-quality electricity in a range of sensitive industrial processes and information technologies has refocused attention on the need for extremely high-quality power. DE technologies can help respond to this demand in a number of ways. The use of DE technologies can avoid movement of electricity where the majority of power quality problems, especially voltage sags, occur. Energy storage devices are a DE resource that is often used to provide uninterrupted power supply either as a support to the power grid during periods of very short term instability or as a bridge to allow stand-by DE technologies to begin operation and ramp up to meet the required load.
Potential Robustness Advantages and Disadvantages of DE Systems
Note: T&D, transmissio...Read More
The robustness of an energy generation and distribution network has received considerable attention for its performance under conditions of conflict, whether in terms of war or terrorist events. A system based on DE would do little to alleviate dependence on oil imports, which is primarily related to transportation. On an individual generation unit basis, the small size and low profile of DE units make them a less important target. Although DE can be powered by a range of renewable, waste, and fossil fuels, the reliance on a natural gas infrastructure has been debated and compared to the system robustness of the electricity network. Table VI details some of the advantages and disadvantages of a natural gas DE network.Read More
Reliability considerations for DE can be divided into plant and system impacts. At the plant level, high levels of availability of DE units are achieved through remote monitoring and real-time control. As there can be a large number of DE units, reliability can be ensured for scheduled maintenance and unscheduled outages by transferring the electricity load to the remaining DE units. Building or process management systems can turn off nonessential loads if required. Energy storage devices can also be used to maintain supply for short periods. Finally, the dual-fuel capabilities of many DE technologies or the use of different DE units at the same location can ensure supply in the case of fuel disruptions.
In comparing DE reliability to a centralized electricity network, ...Read More
DE technologies exhibit a range of emission characteristics. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions depend only on the carbon or sulfur content of the fuel and the efficiency of generation and supply. Local pollutants including nitrogen oxides (NOx) also depend on the specifics of the combustion or generation process. The relative environmental performance of DE depends on what centralized electricity technology and fuel they are competing against and whether the DE technology is being used for electricity only or CHP applications. If it is a DE-CHP application, then the emissions from the heat boiler plant must also be factored in. Higher relative DE efficiencies are also aided by the avoidance of electricity distribution losses...Read More
A variety of information programs exist in the major automobile markets to assist potential purchasers of new cars in comparing fuel economy characteristics (and other attributes) among competing vehicles. However, there is no evidence that the existence of such systems plays a significant role in consumer choice of vehicles. For example, in 1995, the light – duty fleets in the two European countries with fuel economy labeling systems (Sweden and the United Kingdom) were the least efficient in Europe (according to International Energy Agency data).
The fuel economy information program in the United States is the oldest and most highly developed of the major vehicle markets...Read More
A number of countries have tax programs designed to reward purchasers and owners of fuel-efficient vehicles (or to penalize purchasers and owners of fuel – inefficient vehicles) by tying vehicle purchase and/or ownership taxes either directly to fuel economy or to vehicle features associated with fuel economy (e. g., engine displacement). Aside from taxes aimed specifically at fuel economy or associated vehicle characteristics, all countries in the major auto markets have vehicle taxes that are based on the total purchase
3 – 2 1 0
Canada France Germany Japan United United
FIGURE 3 Gasoline prices for selected countries, 1990 and 2001, showing effect of taxes. From Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (2002)...
The benefits or costs that DE technologies bring to an electricity network are a function of the level of penetration. If DE is limited to a relatively small percentage of overall capacity, it can be incorporated into the existing paradigm of remote generation of electricity with extensive transmission and distribution networks. Within this paradigm, DE can fulfill a number of functions in addition to providing electricity and heat to individual customers. These include
grid reinforcement, standby power, meeting peak demands, remote sites, and hedging against fuel volatility.
The use of DE in areas where it is difficult or expensive to upgrade the distribution network can alleviate bottlenecks in the system and enable greater system capacity and reliability...Read More