# Category Solar Lighting

## LED SHS for a Typical House in Rural Region

Electrical appliances usage:

• Four 7.2 W-12 VDC Linear LED lamps used for 5 h per day.

• Two 6 W-12 VDC fan used for 10 h per day.

• Other DC appliances 10 W for 2 h per day.

A. Power Consumption Demands

Total appliances use = (7.2W x 5h) + (6W x 10h) + (10W x 2h)

= 116Wh/day

Total PV panels energy needed = 116 Wh/day x 1.3 (the energy lost in the system)

= 150Wh/day

B. Size of the PV Panel

Sun energy is available for 4 h a day.

Total Wp of PV panel = 150/4 = 37.5Wp Actual requirement = 40 Wp one module

C. Battery Sizing

The battery should be large enough to store sufficient energy to operate the appliances at night and cloudy days.

Total appliances use = (7.2W x 5h) + (6W x 10h) + (10W x 2h)

= 116 Wh

Divide the total watt-hours per day used by 0.85 for battery loss = 116/0.85

= 13...

## Costs of Commercial OLED Lighting Panels

Manufacturing cost breakdown per square meter is presented for year 2012-2013 for mass production. Total cost of panel is \$250.00/m2.

The price of the OLED lighting panel is still very high. Consequently, some companies are focusing on a high valued lighting market. They predict that OLED white light products may be limited to only the high-valued market for a few years because of high price. For general lighting, it is necessary to reduce the cost substantially. The cost reduction strategy of the OLED lighting panel in 2020 will be:

(i) OLED materials: <\$10/m2

(ii) Glass, light extraction, TCO, encapsulation, other: <\$30/m2

(iii) Labor: <\$5/m2

(iv) Equipment (entire line): <\$20/m2.

The total cost per square meter will be about \$65 or less by 2020.

## Suppliers of Organic Materials

Suppliers of organic materials used in OLED lighting devices fabrication

Light emitting hosts and dopants Injectors/Transporters

• Cambridge display technology—Polymers

• DuPont—Solution based phosphorescent small Molecule

• Idemitsu Kosan—Fluorescent and phosphorescent small molecule

• Merck—Polymers, small molecule

• Universal display—Phosphorescent small molecule

• Dow chemical—Fluorescent and phosphorescent small molecule

• Sunfine chem—Fluorescent and phosphorescent small molecule

• LG Chemical—Fluorescent small molecule

• Sumitomo chemicals (Japan)—Polymers

## Credit Guarantee System

Potential customers require some sort of collateral which the poorest people do not have and need a good track record to qualify for a solar loan. Sometimes customers also need to make a part of the down payment. Bank insists on the evidence that the customer has a minimum regular income before the loan can proceed. They have difficulty in gaining access to financial institutions due to insufficient credit. The Local Credit Center (non-profit organization) formed with the stakeholder of local people and contributions from the Government and Private Institutions, can issue a letter of credit guarantee for the loan to the Bank. In case of financial crisis, the Credit Center pays the Bank instalment.

5.2 Conclusions

It is believed that LEDs operated using solar energy offer the solution to pr...

## Best Practices of Financing in Asia

In Asia, about 799 million people live without access to electricity. Approximately 85% of those people live in rural areas [22]. The rural banking system plays a significant role to finance sustainable energy systems for poor rural households.

People can take a microfinance loan from a bank or microfinance institute, non­governmental organization (NGO) or social enterprise in return for payments spread over an agreed period and buy the solar system directly [23, 24]. In addition, credit facilities to customers are also provided by Commercial Banks, National Banks, Cooperative Banks, etc. But not everyone has access to banking or microfinance. Although such financing is designed to help poor people, the terms can still be impossible to meet for the very poor...

## Best Practices of Financing in Africa

The IEA (2010) estimates that about 589 million people in Africa live without access to electricity [21]. Africa’s non-electrified population is expected to grow from 110 million households to 120 million households by 2015 [2]. African grid expansion is failing to keep pace with population growth. Solar technologies provide the alternative to sustainable development and life-changing improve­ments. However, the high up-front cost of LED SHS continues to be an issue for the poorest African consumers. Access to finance, therefore, is a key factor for the adoption of solar lighting technology.

1. Desertec Consortium is investing in solar business in North Africa.

2. China is funding a study to evaluate Kenya’s potential for solar water heaters and solar PV.

3...