In this case the plant managers have to take two types of decision. First, they have to decide the production for the day and then, they have to decide the energy to be delivered and stored at each time period. The benefit for the time interval k can be computed as B(k) = Pr(k)e1(k) + […]
Category: Control of Solar Energy Systems
If prices are constant, the best option would be to produce as much electrical energy as possible. Storage can be used in those situations where more solar energy can be collected than converted and delivered. This occurs because turbines and generators are designed for nominal conditions which are usually below maximum solar conditions. In some […]
There are different methods for modeling the PCS, many of them based on manufacturer specifications or historical data. A PCS is typically composed of a steam generator, preheater, steam turbine and refrigeration tower. The steam generator is fed by the hot HTF.
The main types of storage system have been analyzed in Chap. 1. In electrical grid energy sources, stored energy has to be used to balance the mismatch between the energy production from intermittent energy sources and the demand. Simplified models of oil and molten salt accumulators will be briefly studied in this chapter.
The solar field is the solar energy collector mechanism and, therefore, one of the most important parts of a solar energy plant. Different models of solar collector fields have been developed in Chap. 4 that are useful for optimization purposes (mainly those based on first principles).
Similarly to price models, energy cost predictions are fundamental for producers and consumers in order to establish their bidding and contract strategies as well as operating their installations. The cost model basically consists of transforming the model of electrical consumption to a cost model. Parasitic loads and personnel costs have to be added. For instance, […]
Electricity prices are set by bilateral contracts between electrical utilities and by the pool where producers and consumers submit bids consisting of a set of quantities of energy and prices which they want to sell or buy and the corresponding minimum or maximum prices. The contracted quantities and corresponding prices are determined by a central […]
The prices of electrical energy on the intraday market depend on supply and demand. The offer curve used to be well known because it depended on only a few generating agents who, in the past, know their production capacities well in advance (except for unforeseen failures). The renewable energy market, especially the solar energy market, […]