Category: Fuel of the Future

Carbon Neutral Solar Fuels

The hydrogen economy is a typical ‘‘chicken and egg problem’’ (Figure 3.16). Until a hydrogen infrastructure is built, hydrogen production will not reward investment. Hence, (solar) hydrogen production plants, as well as vehicles, are not yet being manufactured on the large scale required by the urgency of the anthropogenic climate change problem caused by three […]

Hydrosol: Thermochemical Water Splitting

Very high temperatures are required to dissociate water into hydrogen and oxygen. Given the thermodynamic restrictions, sufficient yields from the direct thermal splitting of water can only be achieved at tem­peratures above 2500 K. Temperatures this high impose extraordinary demands on materials and reactor design. Over the past 30 years numerous thermochemical cycles for hydrogen […]

Thermochemical Water Splitting

3.1 Concentrating Solar Power for Heavy Energy Demand Solar energy technologies have the flexibility to address global power needs. Earth receives a vast amount of solar energy that is estimated to be approximately 120 000 TW (1 TW = 1012W), which vastly exceeds the current annual worldwide energy consumption rate of B15TW.1 The latter figure […]

Emerging Electrolytic Technologies

For electrolytic hydrogen production, the increase in production effi­ciency reduces the amount (and thus the cost) of electricity consumed, whereas an increase in production rate reduces the size and cost of the electrolyzer stack. Nanochemistry research efforts carried out on a global scale, aimed at manufacturing low-cost electrodes made of metal nanoparticles, featuring an enhanced […]

Reducing the Cost of Electrolytic Hydrogen

In a thoughtful and somehow prophetic analysis33 of photovoltaic – assisted water electrolysis dating back to 1982, Carpetis concluded that: There are three interconnected subsystems (solar array, electrolysis unit and hydrogen storage unit) which should be optimized for minimum hydrogen costs, according to the local conditions and to the hydrogen utilization schedule… The cost optimization […]