PVD titanium followed by anodic oxidation to grow TiO2 nanotubes

Anodization is one promising route to prepare long and highly ordered TiO2 nanotubes array. This has been demonstrated by Shankar et al. who synthesized TiO2 nanotube array on titanium foil with a tube length up to 220 pm. Very short anodic oxidation treatment time is required as compared to LPD and HR and might bring this technique a step further toward industrial practice. However, this tube-on-foil design may potentially only be applied as a back-side illuminated DSSCs which are predestined to deplete certain quantity of incident light while traveling through the I2+LiI electrolyte...

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TiO2 nanowires growth on TiO2 template via hydrothermal route

As being well acknowledged that pressurized hydrothermal route is able to synthesize 1D nanomaterials without using catalysts. Due to 1D nanomaterials (such as nanowires) having a relatively higher interfacial charge transfer rate and specific surface area compared with the spherical TiC2 particles and nanocluster TiC2, the simple operation, fast formation and low cost process interested us using this method to produce TiC2 nanowires. The idea was that via the hydrothermal (HR) growth of TiO2 nanowires on an arc ion plated (AIP) TiO2 layer (as a template during HR and a barrier layer during service that pre-deposited on ITC glass), the obtained film would be able to exhibit the desired photoanode properties...

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Nanocluster-TiO2 layer prepared by liquid phase deposition

The LPD process, which was developed in recent years, is a designed wet chemical film process firstly by Nagayama in 1988. Than Herbig et al. used LPD to prepare TiO2 thin film and studied its photocatalytic activity. Most vacuum-based technologies such as sputtering and evaporation are basically limited to the line-of-sight deposition of materials and cannot easily be applied to rather complex geometries. By contract, the easy production, no vacuum requirement, self-assembled and compliance to complicated geometry substrate has led many LPD applications for functional thin films. In order to directly grow nanocluster-TiO2 on ITO glass, the simplest method – LPD process was firstly considered by using H2TiF6 and H3BO3 as precursors...

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Chasing High Efficiency DSSC by Nano-Structural Surface Engineering at Low Processing Temperature for Titanium Dioxide Electrodes

Ying-Hung Chen, Chen-Hon Chen, Shu-Yuan Wu, Chiung-Hsun Chen,

Ming-Yi Hsu, Keh-Chang Chen and Ju-Liang He

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University

Taichung, Taiwan, R. O.C.

1. Introduction

The rapid shortage of petrochemical energy has led to the great demand in developing clean and renewable energy sources; such as solar cells in these years. The first commercially available photovoltaic cell (PV) by using solar energy is silicon-based solar cell however with high production cost and high energy payback time. This limited the usage and agitated vigorous studies on the next-generation solar cells in order to reduce cost and increase efficiency...

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Edited by Leonid A. Kosyachenko

Most solar modules used in photovoltaics are currently produced from crystalline and polycrystalline silicon wafers, the representatives of so-called first generation of solar cells. This type of devices are among the most efficient but at the same time the most expensive since they require the highest purity silicon and involve a lot of stages of complicated processes in their manufacture. Wafer-based silicon photovoltaics is giving place to thin-film technology, which provides much higher performance and lower cost of products, but inferior to silicon solar modules in photoelectric efficiency. Intensive search for materials and solar cell structures for photovoltaics is continuing...

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