Category: ENERGY

Теплогенерация на Украине

В 2016 году частные потребители тепла в Украине получают тепло из следующих источников: 1. Наиболее распространенный – от электричества, электрокотлы, электрокамины, электрообогреватели… Источником без подробностей в большинстве случаев является “энергия воды” – гидроэлектростанции… Возможно источник: атомная энергетика, ТЭЦ… Для большинства конечных потребителей источник – ЖКХ или компания “область_город_энерго”. На начало 2016 года цены на “электротепло” […]

Closing Remarks

The question for humanity, then, is not whether humans and our civilizations will survive, but rather what kind of a planet we will inhabit. Shellenberger and Nordhaus 2011 Science works. From initial empirical insights to theoretical explorations and finally to implemented designs we have managed to create a standard of living (for some) that was […]


And what about fusion? At this stage (and into the foreseeable future), it is far from commercially attainable, but there is enormous interest and activity in laying the groundwork for future fusion energy generation. A long sought-after goal, energy from nuclear fusion is attractive for its ability to maximize the power output while minimizing the […]


9.4.1 Generation IV Reactors It should be apparent that an overwhelming concern with respect to nuclear power is the generation of waste. If only we could consume almost all of the troublesome nuclei, then we would not have to concern ourselves with hazardous and expensive reprocessing technologies. Generation IV reactors address this issue along with […]

Reprocessing Technologies

Of particular interest for sustainability in nuclear energy is reprocessing of spent (or depleted) nuclear fuel. There are three main reasons to reprocess spent nuclear fuel: (1) to recycle the plutonium and uranium and reuse them in a nuclear reactor that can handle this type of mixed oxide fuel (MOX), thus increasing the efficiency of […]

Depleted Uranium

There are several sources of waste in the nuclear fuel cycle, from the initial mining to the treatment of spent fuel. For example, after naturally occurring uranium sources have been mined, crushed, and leached out of the ore, the remainder (the tailings) still contains radioactive uranium. There is also the spent fuel from the reactor: […]

Fuel Reprocessing and Waste Handling

Crucial to the concept of sustainable nuclear energy is a closed fuel cycle, that is, recycling the radioactive fuel and fission products to as full an extent as possible. The once-through mindset of conventional nuclear power cannot continue if we are to achieve any sense of sustainability with respect to nuclear power. That said, a […]

Uranium Enrichment

The very low concentration of U-235 (the fissile isotope) is problematic because most conventional nuclear reactors require a higher proportion of fissile material. Most commercial reactor fuel is enriched to between 3% and 5% U-235, a product known as reactor-grade uranium. (Nuclear weapons require uranium enriched to greater than 90% U-235 (World Nuclear Association 2013a).) […]