Category: Physics of Solar Energy

Lithium-Ion Batteries

Currently the lithium ion battery is the most rapidly developing energy storage device. Soon after its invention in 1991, the CoO2-Li ion battery became the predominant power source for small portable electronics such as mobile phones, digital cameras, and laptop computers. It is widely believed to be the best candidate for powering automobiles because it […]

Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries

In recent decades, nickel metal hydride rechargeable batteries have been widely used in automobiles and relatively large portable electronic devices. The positive electrode is nickel hydroxide, and the negative electrode is an intermetallic compound. The most common metal has the general form AB5, where A is a mixture of rare earth elements, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, […]

Lead-Acid Batteries

To date, the most widely used rechargeable battery is the lead-acid battery. Every automobile should have one with six cells. For a fully charged lead-acid battery, the positive electrode is made of PbO2 and the negative electrode is made of pure lead. The electrolyte is diluted sulfuric acid. After discharging, both the positive electrode and […]

Electrochemistry of Rechargeable Batteries

The basic structure and the charging-discharging processes of rechargeable batteries are shown in Fig. 12.7. For reference, definitions are provided as below. For more details, see, for example, Handbook of Batteries [51]. Cell The basic electrochemical unit converting electrochemical energy to electrical energy. Battery One or more electrochemical cells connected in series or parallel to […]

Rechargeable Batteries

In the last decades, the technology of rechargeable batteries has observed a phenomenal expansion. To date, the century-old lead-acid rechargeable battery has been constantly improved and is still in widespread use. New types of batteries, especially lithium ion rechargeable batteries, are experiencing an explosive growth, and will soon become the dominating distributed storage device for […]