Category: RENEWABLES FOR aTING AND cooling

Capacity building

Training, especially of engineers and installers, is important for the deployment of REHC technologies. Lack of knowledge and competence of professionals working in energy service companies or as heating installers, architects, building developers or city planners is a barrier to diffusion. To have enough competent installers located close to customers is also crucial to provide […]


On average, biomass accounts for around 95% of the renewable heat produced today (Section 3). The contribution of traditional biomass for household heating and cooking plays a large role but is excluded from this discussion (Section 2). Modern biomass combustion is one of the more mature and cost – competitive renewable heating technologies so may […]

Geothermal: Swiss subsidies

The successful deployment of geothermal heat energy in Switzerland resulted from the Energy 2000 Action Plan (1991-2000) and its successor, the Swiss Energy Action Plan, or “SwissEnergy” (2001-present). These programmes cover many energy areas including energy efficiency, transport and industry with the promotion of renewable heat being an important component. The Energy 2000 Action Plan […]

Biomass anaerobic digestion (CHP)

The data were mainly provided by Wellinger (2007) and refer to agricultural plants digesting animal waste, combined with other biomass (co-substrate like corn, grains, grass, etc.). Other biogas feedstocks not considered here include source-separated wastes and landfill gas. The investment costs (expressed in €/kWth) are based on literature cost data expressed in €/kWe and ranging […]


Instruments Carrot. In 1991 the Spanish government approved a National Energy Plan which included an Energy Saving and Efficiency Plan (PAEE) and set the objective to increase renewable energy to 46.0 PJ by 2000, 20.9 PJ of which was specified for renewable heat. Individual targets were established by sector. Subsidies offered through PAEE were managed […]

Path dependency

In some countries REHC is already widespread. This can be partially explained by existing path dependencies such as woody biomass used for district heating in Sweden. In countries where there is no history of district heating, then it would be more difficult to introduce a biomass district heating system because the paradigm shift from distributed […]


Geothermal heat (primarily from shallow, low-temperature sources) is responsible for 3% of the total renewable heat supply in the 12 nations examined. Most of the heat generated is captured in geothermal heat pumps whose markets have grown considerably in recent years (Section 3). Good potential exists for the expansion of both shallow and deep geothermal […]

Action Plan and to lead promotional efforts such as training, quality assurance, and after-sales service. Subsidies of €200 per kW[20] were offered

SwissEnergy, the successor program to the Energy 2000 Action Plan, builds cooperation between the federal government, Swiss cantons, and local authorities with industrial, consumer, and environmental organizations and public and private sector agencies by implementing voluntary measures based on performance mandates. Based upon these performance mandates, target agreements are established with companies and sectors specifying […]