Category Renewable Energy Integration

Scenario 1

A 3-phase fault was created on BPE_WDV_2 (110 kV) transmission line at a 10 % distance from Woodville Substation. This line is protected using zone based protection scheme and clearance times are mentioned in Table 3.1. The voltage response of bus bars under study is shown in Fig. 3.11.

Подпись: Fig. 3.12 A 3-phase symmetrical fault near BPE110

The worst voltage is observed on WDV110 before operation of Zone1 pro­tection after 200 ms. The voltage drops down to a value of 15 % of the nominal voltage. The second bus affected is certainly the other end of the line i. e. BPE110 which has a dropped voltage of 40 % of the nominal value. After Zone1 protection operates the voltage at WDV110 and BPE110 returns back to 45-47 % of the nominal value...

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Economic Models

Complex models were developed based on ‘free market’ approach which basically is surrounded by the assumption that prices dictate choices and that the economy may be modeled as a system. The assumption leads that if there is any change in prices, a general equilibrium is reached and that self-interested individuals in a free market economy would collectively produce benefits for the society. However these models have been discussed in depth that assumptions taken may be too drastic and not real-life scenarios. Hence micro-economists learned that these models are not necessary stable. Later on in this chapter we shall discuss further theories to enhance such models.

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Grid Codes for Integration and Operation of Renewable Energy Sources

Nowadays, share of renewable energy generation in the total generated power is becoming more and more prominent. Because of the intermittent generation, improvements are important for the generation plant [13]. The discussions made in this section are based on the wind generation, primarily.

Sometimes, the power generation using the renewable sources can be a costlier affair. Therefore, governments provide incentive based schemes for its promotion. They help on the components of the generation system, especially the technology related to the development of controllers to generate the specified amount of voltage and frequency [14]. Also, it helps in training the personnel for the operation.

Operation of the wind generators, in line with the grid codes, is the prime concern for the plant own...

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Sensitivity Analysis

The voltage at any node can be considered as a function of the location and rating of PV. Therefore the sensitivity of network voltage imbalance to a PV location and rating is expressed as

PPV ;k

0Ppv, k ‘ VUF

Since voltages at each node are calculated iteratively, the sensitivity is calcu­lated numerically once the iterations converge as

S VUF(y + 1) —VUF(y)

PPV, k (c + 1)— PPV ,k(c)

where 0 < у < 4 defines the rating of the PV (i. e. 0, 1,2, 3, 4, 5 kW).

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