## Distributed Control Through Frequency Partition

The distributed control technique is based on frequency partitioning between the central and local controllers [50, 51]. The central controller is responsible for controlling the low-frequency term and the local controllers the high-frequency term. Information on the modules’ voltage references, current references and average feedback voltages is shared among the modules. This scheme presents a […]

## Scope of Research

From the above literature, there are several issues, which have not yet been taken into consideration by researchers. In this dissertation, some are discussed, with the main focus being on the following. • Consideration of PHEV battery dynamics for load calculation and a cussed in the literature. • Introduction of a novel ancillary service of […]

## Proposed Aggregated DFIG Wind Farm Model

Figure 13.6 shows the proposed aggregated DFIG wind farm model that consists of a mechanical torque compensating factor (MTCF) incorporated into a tradi­tional full aggregated model. The MTCF (a) is a multiplication factor to the mechanical torque (T’magg) of the full aggregated model that minimizes this inaccuracy in approximation. The mechanical torque (Tmagg) of the […]

## Inner-Loop Control

As mentioned before, the outer-loop control regulates the output power of DERs by adjusting the proper references for the each DER from (15.2) or (15.7). Theinner-loop control will calculate and apply proper switching signals for the IGBTs in the DER converter such that the desired voltage (Vcfref) is perfectly generated across the AC filter capacitor […]

## System Model of Measurement Data

Consider a measurement vector z for an n-bus system, where, z 2 RMx1, M > (2n — 1)x 1. Therefore, z should be: zi _ Zm _ It is assumed that the measurement vector should contain some error with the exact measurement function value. Therefore, z can be written as: h1 (X1 ,X2,. ,X3) e1 […]

## . The Structure of the Proposed Method

The structure of the proposed hybrid optimization method for optimal siting and sizing of WTs is shown in Fig. 6.2. The method jointly minimizes the total energy losses over a year and maximizes the SW for each scenario. The WTs’ sizes and locations are represented by the variable of the GA: a vector of integers, […]

## . Wind AGC Control

AGC plays a key role in maintaining the balance of power grid generation and consumption. Though no research has covered this topic yet, variable-speed wind generators could act to the AGC regulation order from the operator as effeciently as conventional generation. Actually, thanks to the fast response speed of power electronics converters, the active power […]

## Load

The following exponential forms are used to represent a static load. P(V > = p0© ”• (10’8) Q(V) = e^V) • (10-9) where P and Q are the active and reactive components of the load, respectively and V is the bus voltage magnitude. The subscript 0 identifies the values of the respective variables at the […]