LESSONS OF EASTER ISLAND
March 17th, 2016
The proposed method is applied to the abovementioned distribution network. According to a sensitivity analysis, the number of generations and the population size are chosen as, 300 and 20, respectively. The method has been implemented in MATLAB® incorporating some features of MATPOWER suite [19] and MAT – LAB® toolbox for GA [27] on a laptop with core i7, 1.6 GHz processor and 4 GB of RAM.
The minimum energy losses over the year are about 7,532 MWh. The optimal sizes and numbers of WTs at each candidate bus found by the proposed method are given in Table 6.4. It is evident from Table 6.4 that buses 54, 62, and 81 have the
Table 6.4 The optimal numbers, sizes and capacities of WTs obtained by the proposed method

The main objective of loadsharing is to distribute the active and reactive loads among the available DGs while maintaining voltage regulation and accommodating various types of loads [13]. In LV and MV networks, loadsharing becomes challenging due to the following factors.
• Most DGs have some local loads,
• Most DGs are nondispatchable RESs, and
• The stability and reliability of the system gain importance, apart from the cost.
R X
—mrYV
Sab=Pab+jQab
Three different methods of load sharing are commonly employed: droopbased control, communicationbased control, and droopbased control with communication link, as described in the following subsections.
Read MoreFirstgeneration massmarket PHEVs, such as the Chevrolet Volt and Nissan Leaf [10, 11], connect to the grid for only battery charging, which is the most basic configuration. G2V includes conventional and fast battery charging systems, and the latter can stress a grid distribution network because its power is high, as a typical PHEV requires more than double an average household’s load [25]. Charging practices in different locations also have an effect on the amount of power taken from an electric grid by a fleet of PHEVs; for example, charging at work in congested urban centres can lead to undesirable peak load [12], which could require significant investments in expensive peak generation...
Read MoreFigure 12.20 compares the MG frequency behavior during the reconnection of loads and noncontrollable MS when considering both noncontrolled charging and V2G service. At t = 5 s the MGCC enables the reconnection of the first load block causing a frequency deviation of 1.5 Hz, which is then corrected by the secondary control by increasing the controllable generation output. The load reconnection is interleaved with the reconnection of the noncontrollable MS at t = 30 s, followed by the reconnection of the second block of loads at t = 50 s. After the restoration
Fig. 12.22 Active power injected by the MG main storage unit 
Time (s) Fig. 12.23 SSMT active power response to the MGCC centralized secondary frequency control 
of load there is still sufficient reserve capacity and ...
Read MoreThe power losses in a power electronic DCDC converter can be divided into conduction and switching losses, where conduction losses consist of inductor conduction losses and MOSFET conduction losses [28] (Fig.14.7).
• Inductor Conduction Losses Inductor conduction losses is as follows
Pl = I2L x Rl {14.17)
where Rl is the DCResistance of the inductor,
The inductor rms current (IL):
D/2
11 = /2 + (14.18)
where /o the output current and D/ the ripple current.
Typically, D/ is about 30 % of the output current. Therefore, the inductor current can be calculated as:
/l = /o x 1.00375 (14.19)
Because the ripple current contributes only 0.375 % of IL, it can be neglected. The power dissipated in the inductor now can be calculated as:
Pl = /o2 x Rl
• Power Dissipated in the MOSFETs
The power d...
Read MoreTo evaluate the performance of the MASbased smart grid protection system for the impact of growing penetration of wind energy in the grid, a test system as shown in Fig. 16.2 is used for simulation under different wind power penetration level. In the following sections, we discuss about the function of individual autonomous agents which are responsible for coordinating the protection relays by detecting and isolating a fault with the corresponding CCT information.
Fig. 16.8 Fault current x 104
Fig. 16.9 Breaker fault current
Read MoreA genetic algorithm (GA) is a procedure used to find approximate solutions to search problems through application of the principles of evolutionary biology. The evolutionary process of a GA is a highly simplified and stylized simulation of the biological version. It starts from a population of individuals randomly generated according to some probability distribution, usually uniform and updates this population in steps called generations. Each generation, multiple individuals are randomly selected from the current population based upon some application of
Fig. 5.10 Implementation of a fuzzy logic controller based MPPT 
current Fig. 5.11 Implementation of ANN based MPPT 
fitness, bred using crossover, and modified through mutation to form a new population.
Read MoreIt is clear from the above analysis, that the advantage of both shunt and series compensation of an AC capacitor can be made use of. In shunt compensation, the capacitor is used to compensate the individual induction generators. In series compensation, the capacitor is used to compensate the line impedance. The overall result will be an improvement in the voltage and lower losses on the transmission line.
To know the effect of the combined series and shunt compensations, simulations are carried out for two different combinations of seriesshunt compensation. The same 10 wind turbines are connected at bus 9. Figure 7.21 illustrates the real power generated by WECS versus the voltage at the WECS terminals with various combinations of seriesshunt compensations...
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