Category Progress in Sustainable Energy Technologies: Generating Renewable Energy

Case Study

For a case study, New Delhi climatic condition is chosen and data for monthly average solar radiation on horizontal surface and ambient temperature (Table 1.4) and the parameters used in Eqs. (1.1-1.3) (Table 1.3) for winter (January) and sum­mer (June) seasons are adopted from Joshi and Tiwari [7]. Two pyranometers have been used to measure the global and diffuse radiations. The first has been used to measure hourly global radiation and second one for hourly diffuse radiation with the help of shading ring. The pyranometers have been connected to a computer through a data logger for hourly readings. Both pyranometers have been calibrated at regu­lar intervals of three months so that any corrections due to moisture/dust/starch deposition on cover can be taken into account...

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Exergy of Solar Radiation

The quality of solar radiation often refers to its usability. How much energy of solar radiation we can use or what is the maximum usability of the solar radiation de­fines the availability of useful solar energy for a particular application. The limit of maximum usage of energy of solar radiation is known as exergy of solar radiation. The exergy of solar radiation depends upon its intensity, sun’s temperature and the ambient temperature. Sun’s temperature (5777 K) is almost constant throughout the year where as ambient temperature changes. Many scientists have tried to quantify the exergy of solar radiation namely, Petela [1], Jeter [2], Spanner [3], Saitoh et al. [4], Zamfirescu and Dincer [5], Joshi et al [6], Bejan [13], Santarelli and Macagno [14]...

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Methodology

Now we discuss the cloudiness/haziness factor and its application to evaluate the solar radiation in this section. Later the exergy of the solar radiation is calculated by using the cloudiness/haziness factor and various models.

Cloudiness/Haziness Factor

As the name suggests, cloudiness/haziness factor is a parameter to know the clear­ness of the sky [7-10]. Joshi and Tiwari [7] and Singh and Tiwari [9] have evaluated cloudiness/haziness factor for different climatic conditions of India based on the past data obtained from Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), India. As dis­cussed earlier, the cloudiness/haziness factor influences the solar radiation incident on earth, therefore it is important to know how it affects the latter. Tiwari [8] has given cloudiness/haziness factor for diff...

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Introduction

Unarguably, solar energy is the immense source of energy that can fulfill the in­creasing energy demand of the world. Its appropriate application for useful purpos­es is also very important. Generally, solar energy can be utilized in two ways, they are, photovoltaic and solar thermal applications. On one hand, thermal application of solar energy is at its maturity these days as most of the solar thermal devices pos­sess good energy and exergy efficiencies. On the other hand, photovoltaic possesses more challenge to scientists and engineers because of relatively lower efficiencies and hence, presents more scope for possible improvement.

A. S. Joshi (H)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, CMR Institute of Technology,

132 AECS layout, IT park Road, Bangalore, Karnataka 560037, India e-ma...

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Comparative Study of Effect of Cloudiness/ Haziness Factor on the Quality of Solar Radiation

Anand S. Joshi, Ibrahim Dincer and Bale V. Reddy

Abstract In this chapter, the effect of cloudiness/haziness factor on the quality of solar radiation is analysed. First, the solar radiation is predicted and compared with the experimental observations and then, the exergy of solar radiation is calculated and analysed based on various models. The effect of cloudiness/haziness factor is plotted in the form of graphs. Other factors affecting the solar radiation, namely, atmospheric transmittance, perturbation factor and background diffuse radiation are also discussed briefly. It is found that for lower values of cloudiness/haziness factor, the solar energy is more and vice versa. Also, lower the cloudiness/haziness factor better would be the intensity of solar radiation.

Keywords Solar energy ...

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About the Editors

Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Dincer is a full professor of Mechanical Engineering and pro­grams director in the faculty of Engineering and Applied Science at University of Ontario Institute of Technology. Renowned for his pioneering works, he has authored and co-authored many books and book chapters, over 800 refereed j ournal and conference papers, and numerous technical reports. He has chaired many national and international conferences, symposia, workshops, and technical meetings. He is the founding chair/co chair of various well-established international conferences, including the International Exergy, Energy, and Environment Symposium. He has delivered over 200 keynote and invited lectures...

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Progress in Sustainable Energy Technologies: Generating Renewable Energy

Renewable energy sources are of vital importance for future of humanity due to the issues and problems caused by mainly fossil-based energy systems and applica­tions. Renewable energy sources are treated as sustainable energy sources while fossil fuels are considered unsustainable. This fact has attracted many researchers, scientists, practicing engineers, etc. to work on tirelessly and develop better renew­able energy-based technologies for a sustainable future. The study domain is quite diverse, covering many engineering disciplines, such as mechanical, civil, physical, chemical, biotechnology, environmental, industrial, geological, electrical, etc. and non-engineering areas, such as chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics, business, informational technology, economy, medicine, etc.

E...

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