Category Progress in Sustainable Energy Technologies: Generating Renewable Energy

Theoretical Review Cogeneration Modes and Configurations

Although cogeneration power and water production plants are generally perceived to be cost-effective, flexibility in operations is one of the most important character­istics in competitive bulk power and water production markets. Flexibility is usu­ally determined by the intrinsic thermodynamic design of a plant configuration. Flexibility is also linked to the power/water ratio of a given power/water plant con­figuration.

In the public literature, a number of different types of configuration classifi­cations have been discussed. Common configuration classifications include; (i) configurations based on the implemented thermodynamic cycle [4], and (ii) con­figurations based on the desired cogeneration mode [5]...

Read More

Background

The generating company (power/water cogeneration plant) is one among the larg­est joint stock companies in the Gulf Region. It owns and operates a number of power plants and desalination stations to meet the power and water consumption needs. The generating company produces water and power and sells these products to a transmission and distribution company. While the generating company is a private limited, the government holds significant shares in power generation and water production. In addition, the power/water transmission and distribution com­pany is also under the control of the government...

Read More

Efficiency of Installed Capacity in a Power and Water Cogeneration Plant

Farayi Musharavati

Abstract Over the years, power and water cogeneration plants have become popu­lar in the gulf region. This is because of the perceived potential for the technology to drastically reduce the unit costs of freshwater and power. While potential ben­efits of such installations have been realized, additional benefits can be accrued by critically examining the operating performances of installed capacity. In this study, potentials for improving plant operating efficiencies in cogeneration power/water production plants are investigated...

Read More

Results and Discussion

The yields of pyrolytic bio-char, bio-oil and bio-gas are listed in Table 44.2. It is clear that more bio-oil and bio-gas are obtained via microwave enhanced pyrolysis of gumwood, which are 8.52 and 73.26 wt.%, respectively. Due to the volumet­ric and instant heating of microwave induced pyrolysis, the inner temperature of gumwood is higher than that under conventional heating condition, which leads to fast decomposing process of biomass. Therefore, the yields of pyrolytic bio-oil and bio-gas via microwave method are higher than the pyrolytic products via conven­tional pyrolysis.

The SEM images of gumwood bio-chars prepared by microwave enhanced py­rolysis and conventional pyrolysis are shown in Fig. 44.1...

Read More

Experimental

Gumwood was obtained from Huzhou, China. It was grinded into a size smaller than 212 gm. Silicon carbide (SiC) was employed as a microwave absorber, the size of which is larger than 212 gm. Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) was used as a solvent for pyrolytic bio-oil collecting. Proximate and ultimate analyses of gumwood are shown in Table 44.1.

Properties

Gumwood

Proximate analysis (wt.%)

Moisture content

2.1

Volatile matter

86.0

Fixed carbon

11.8

Ash content

0.1

Ultimate analysis3- b (wt.%)

Carbon

47.1

Hydrogen

6.3

Oxygenc

43.5

Nitrogen

2.1

Sulfur

1.0

Table 44.1 Proximate and ultimate analyses of gumwood

a Dry basis b Ash free basis c By difference

The experiments were carried out in a drop tube furnace and a ...

Read More

Microwave Enhanced Pyrolysis Of Gumwood

Kaiqi Shi, Tao Wu, Jiefeng Yan, Haitao Zhao, Philip Hall and Edward Lester

Abstract Microwave pyrolysis of biomass has gained increasing interests due to the fact that microwave heating provides a volumetric heating and instant heating at improved heating efficiencies compared with conventional heating techniques. In this study, microwave-enhanced pyrolysis of gumwood was carried out at 500 °С with silicon carbide as a microwave absorber. Conventional pyrolysis of gumwood was also studied under the same temperature conditions as that of microwave – enhanced pyrolysis. The yields of pyrolytic products, morphology of bio-char, and composition of bio-oil and bio-gas are analyzed by using Scanning Electron Micro­scope, Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrum and Gas Chromatograph respectively...

Read More

Experimental Measurements in the UHI Project

During 2012 summer the research group of the Department of Management and Engineering will conduct some experimental measurements in order to:

• study the presence of the UHI effect also in smaller city than metropolis, like Padua;

• give some useful indication, based on the data collected, for the city planning.

A new transept has been studied (22 km), measuring air temperature, relative hu­midity, wind velocity and global solar radiation. In some characteristic sites it will be measured the net radiation on the six directions as well (North, South, East, West, Bottom, Up) for the calculus of mean radiant temperature. The main idea is to calculate some outdoor comfort index (HUMIDEX, PET, SET*) [10, 11] and to investigate the possible causes of the UHI effect.

A session of measuremen...

Read More

European Project “UHI”: Data Analysis and Experimental Measurements

European Project “UHI – Development and application of mitigation and adapta­tion strategies and measures for counteracting the global Urban Heat Islands phe­nomenon” (3CE292P3) started in May 2011. The main objectives of the project are to improve knowledge of the UHI effect, to set up a transnational network to monitor the phenomenon and to define mitigation and adaptation strategies to be implemented in town planning plans. The project involves the Emilia-Romagna Region ARPA, Veneto Region, Co. Ri. La. (a research centre on venetian environ­ment) and other research centers, universities and municipality of the Central Eu­rope (Wien, Prague, Lubjana, etc.)...

Read More