Category Renewables-Based Technology

Resource Consumptions

The inputs of all non-renewable resources such as coal, oil and minerals are measured. They are weighted according to their expected lifetime and added. Oil has an expected lifetime of 40 years and therefore is weighted four times higher as coal with a lifetime of ca. 160 years. Renewables are considered to have an unlimited lifetime. The bio-route shows a 66% reduction on resources. Main advantages are: less oil, mainly because phenylacetic acid as a large oil-consuming agent, is omitted and less natural gas as source for generation of silylating agents (which is no longer required). The bio-based process consumes, surprisingly, 5% less sugar, reflecting the high process efficiency...

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Sustainability Metrics Applied to the Cephalexin Processes

Alongside the development of technology and sustainability assessments as presented above, the assessments of the green process routes to Cephalexin were evaluated. Throughout the development of the enzymatic process, the projected advantages in costs for chemicals and environmental factors were confirmed. Major breakthroughs during the overall development period of 6-8 years were achieved in productivity and stability of the required biocatalysts, allowing space-time yields (kg/l/hr) equal or better than the traditional, fully optimized stoichiometric processes. In more general terms, the advantages of catalysis over stoichiometric processes were fully confirmed...

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Bio-Based Routes to Cephalexin

As mentioned before, the semi-synthetic antibiotics were among the first industrial prod­ucts to experience the benefits of biocatalysis. The historic background in fermentation in

Bio-Based Routes to Cephalexin

CEPHALEXIN (>10 steps)

Figure 19.5 Integrated, semi-synthetic route for Cephalexin (DSM); note stoichiometric chemistry in all steps except sugar-based Penicillin G fermentation many companies together with the drivers presented in the previous section laid the basis for this early involvement. The relatively simple hydrolytic steps in which the natural side chains were removed from the P-lactam nucleus were the first to be done enzymatically, employing well-known amide acylases such as derived from E. Coli...

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Traditional Routes to Semi-Synthetic Antibiotics

The onset of the therapeutic use of P-lactam antibiotics through the natural penicil­lins Pen. G and Pen. V, all prepared by fermentation, could have been the basis of a very early example of bio-based industrial productions, both in its feedstock and the further conversion processes. The quickly emerging need for non-natural semi­synthetic antibiotics and the lack of success in early attempts with enzymes in synthesis schemes favoured the application of synthetic organic chemistry, the latter

Traditional Routes to Semi-Synthetic Antibiotics

Figure 19.4 Experience curve for Pen. G prices 1965-2010

being spurred by the memorable breakthroughs of organic synthesis in the period 1960-80...

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Assessment of Bio-Based Routes to Cephalexin

Cephalexin, with an annual volume of over 4000 tons, is the largest semi-synthetic cepha­losporin on the market and an important representative of the group of P-lactam antibi­otics, the world’s largest single cluster of molecular closely related anti-infectives (Bruggink, 2001). Continuous market growth, the present global volume of lactam antibi­otics amounts to over 50 000 tons/year, and ongoing product improvements and renewals for over a period of 40 years have made the manufacturing of these products into a global business, feeling and following all the major trends in economy and technology...

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Sustainability Assessment in the Early Phases of Development

As is common in a business-to-business industry, process development and process improvements are the most important R&D activities. In the early phases several process profile analyses are used to assess the value of various process options. In its most simple form a matrix is constructed, showing the key parameters for a number of process alternatives vs its score in qualitative terms. In fact, this approach is applicable to most R&D projects and proposals. The quality of many research proposals, both industrial and academic, would improve considerably if these simple matrices were used more often. The majority of research projects are aiming at improving a particular existing situation. Thus, in a matrix similar to Figure 19...

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Assessment Methods During Process Development and Technology Transfers

19.1.1 History and Growth of the Need for Adequate Assessment Methods at DSM

On 4 April 2001 the DSM Board set up a Steering Group on Sustainability at corporate level with the aim to actively pursue the principles of sustainability in its internal activities and

procedures and its external communications. A well-working corporate policy on sustainability, annual reports based on the sustainability principles of people, planet and profit and a number one position in the Dow Jones Index Sustainability Group for the chemical sector are the gratifying results. Such achievements can only be reached with a history of awareness of social and environmental aspects next to economic parameters...

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Assessment of Bio-Based. Pharmaceuticals

The Cephalexin Case

Alle Bruggink and Peter Nossin

19.1 Introduction

Pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals were among the first industrial products to feel the impact of biocatalysis in their manufacturing processes. After more than an age of stoi­chiometric chemistry these industry segments started to feel the need for better environ­mental control. Catalysis was the obvious answer to this demand, but a simple translation of the vast experience in catalysis in the petrochemical industry was by no means an easy solution. In particular, the elevated temperatures, quite common and often conditional to successful chemocatalysis, are not compatible with most of the multifunctional molecules in pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals...

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