Category: Renewables-Based Technology

The Basic Metrics

Chapters 5-10 show six different metrics that can be put into practice as sustainability metrics. Chapter 5 focuses on metrics especially designed to assess renewables-based energy: biofuels. The presented net energy balancing method may be the preferred method in systems where the input of renewables versus non-renewables is so obvious. Chapter 6 presents the typical […]


Jo Dewulf and Herman Van Langenhove 19.3 Introduction Although the word did not exist as such, renewables have been the main sources for energy and material supply in societies for many centuries, and this roughly until 1850. With the start of the era of power machines based on coal and other fossil fuels (first coal, […]


This aggregated parameter constitutes waste (90% reduction in landfill waste), emissions to water (reduced by 52%) and emissions to air. The latter are quantified in terms of contribution to global warming potential (reduced by 83%), photochemical ozone creation potential (reduced by 50%) and acidification potential (reduced by 55% in the bio-route). For example, halogenated solvents […]