Category Energy Portfolio

Formation of coal

Coals are formed from the accumulation of vegetable debris in specialized environ­ments. They range in age from Upper Palaeozoic to Recent. The rank of coal (peat, lignite, sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, semi-anthracite and anthracite, in order of increasing rank) and the degree of structural complexity are determined by the synsedimentary and post-sedimentary processes to which the vegetable matter has been subjected. The coal-bearing sequences tend to be so similar that when once a lithofacies (say, a sandstone) of a particular sequence (say, a Gondwana cyclothem) are met with, it is possible to predict the existence of coal of a particular rank.

The greater the depth of burial, and the longer the length of burial, the higher would be the rank of coal...

Read More

SECTION-I Energy from coal

U. Aswathanarayana



The case of coal reminds us of the “rose-and-thorn” syndrome. For instance, countries like China, India, USA and Poland cannot avoid using coal for generating energy. The mining, preparation, transport and combustion of coal severely pollute the environment (not only in the countries concerned, but also in the neighboring countries), and causes climate change on a global-scale. This section draws attention to technologies for maximizing the efficient use of coal and minimizing the environ­mental impact and carbon emissions.

The Coal Cycle has serious environmental and health impacts...

Read More


The well being and productivity of a family, a community or a country are critically dependent upon secure, reliable and affordable energy supplies. The global energy paradigm has to simultaneously address two linked issues, namely, economic growth of growing populations on the one hand and the mitigation of climate change on the other. The world population is expected to increase from about 6.5 billion in 2005 to about 9.2 billion in 2050, with India (with 1.66 billion) emerging as the most popu­lous country in the world by then. The International Energy Agency, Paris, estimates that between now and 2050, the global economy is projected to grow four-fold, while the economies of China and India will grow ten-fold...

Read More

Energy Portfolios

The International Energy Agency, Paris, has been vigorously advocating the view that, “a global revolution is needed in ways that energy is supplied and used”, in order to limit the global temperature increase to 2.0-2.4°C above the pre-industrial tempera­ture. In 2008, in the context of the current disastrous slump in the global economy, the promise of jobs is a stronger incentive to go green than the threat of ice caps melting and coastal cities drowning in 2018 or 2048. An attractive attribute of these green jobs is that most of them cannot be outsourced. France again leads the world in innovative energy approaches. Earlier, the massive construction of nuclear reactors fundamentally changed the energy economy of France (see Chap. 5.3 in this volume)...

Read More