Category Energy Portfolio

Underground geological storage

5.2.3.I Capacity of the storage

The effectiveness of geological storage depends on a combination of physical and geochemical trapping mechanisms. The most effective storage sites are those where CO2 is immobile because it is trapped permanently under a thick, low – permeability seal, or is converted to solid minerals, or is adsorbed on the surfaces

of coal micropores, or through a combination of physical and chemical trapping mechanisms.

Geological storage of CO2 can be undertaken in a variety of geological settings in sedimentary basins. Within these basins, oil fields, depleted gas fields, deep coal seams, and saline formations are all possible storage formations...

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Cost of carbon dioxide capture and storage

For fossil-fuel power stations, many studies were carried out on the additional cost estimate in various conditions. IPCC (2007) showed that the cost for every tonne of CO2 avoided and discussed on the potentials in terms of Wh/yr for the costs lower than 20US$/t CO2-eq avoided and those lower than 50US$/t CO2-eq avoided. The potentials and cost estimates are for the world opportunities by 2030.

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Storage

Originally, when it was proposed by Marchetti (1977), the CCS scheme assumed that the storage sites be in the ocean. The concept of CO2 underground geological storage in the context of the global warming concerns was propounded by Steinberg (1984). Steinberg compared the cost of storage, that is injection into a well or depo­sition onto the ocean floor through a pipe, and concluded that the costs are compa­rable for both methods (ocean and underground). However, as a scientist in North America, he knows well that the CO2-EOR is almost matured technology and he might think that after Lake Nyos disaster (Kusakabe et al., 1989) that occurred in 1986, the underground storage is more feasible from viewpoint of risk perception of the public.

In terms of storage cost, the solid-CO2 storage conc...

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Transport

After capture, CO2 is delivered from the point source to the storage site. Dedicated CO2 pipelines are the most efficient transport mode for shipment, but tanker lorries and ships can also used, permitting flexibility of the logistics. There are over 5,800 km of pipelines dedicated to CO2 transport in the U. S.A., mainly for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. Transport technology and regulations are considered relatively mature, at least relative to capture and underground storage; economies of scale and creation of a centralized pipeline network could lower costs marginally, but major cost reductions are unlikely.

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Capture

Carbon dioxide capture requires separating from industrial and energy-related process emissions into relatively pure streams and pressurizing it for transport and storage. Only large point sources of CO2 emissions such as power plants, steel mills, cement plants, refineries, ammonia and fertilizer plants are currently targeted as candidates for CCS. These sources account for nearly half of global CO2 emissions. In the case that electrical vehicles are widely introduced in the future, the contribu­tion of CCS to the CO2 emission reduction would be much significant. Moreover, if CCS technology is employed to the power plants using biomass fuels, this means negative CO2 emission to the atmosphere...

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Economics and technological status of carbon dioxide capture and storage

Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) typically consists of three steps: capture, transport, and storage. Capture is the most expensive step; energy-consuming

Figure 5.2.1 Schematic diagram of stocks and flows of CO2 with net flows of captured CO2 to each reservoirs. The labels R indicate the release flows of CO2 once stored in Ocean (CCSo), in Geosphere (CCSg), or as in the form of Chemical and Mineral storage (CCScm). Note that the longer-term carbon cycle involves the ocean and weathering processes as de­scribed by Ohsumi (1995). [cited from IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, 2005]

processes are involved and the target of the technology research is being focused on the cost reduction...

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CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE AND STORAGE

Takashi Ohsumi Toshima, Japan

5.2.1 Overview

It has been well recognized that the global warming concerns could be a limiting factor for human kind to use the fossil fuel. In 1973, the Club of Rome commissioned the book “Limits to Growth”, where the author Dennis Meadows warned that the world would run short of resources within a century, putting the planet at risk of expanding hunger as well as economic and social disaster. In response to this warning, Marchetti (1977) discussed the fossil-fuel era with and without carbon dioxide stor­age as such depicted in Figure 5.2.1. His proposal was the ocean injection of carbon dioxide captured in the process of fossil fuel energy use.

This chapter describes the technology of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), an emerging energy technol...

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Key roadmaps for sustainable energy future

The international Energy Agency, Paris, came up with the following key roadmaps to achieve a sustainable energy future (Energy Technology Perspectives, 2008, p. 46).

Supply side

• Energy efficiency in buildings and appliances

• Heat pumps

• Solar space and water heating

• Energy efficiency in transport

• Electric and plug-in vehicles

• H2 fuel cell vehicles

• CCS in industry, H2 and fuel transformation

• Industrial motor systems

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