Category Energy Portfolio
Bertrand Barre & Philippe Garderet AREVA, Paris Cedex, France
France is a medium size country of 63 million inhabitants, blessed with a mild climate favourable to agriculture, various beautiful landscapes and a long cultural and architectural inheritance – not to mention its well-established tradition of gastronomy – which make it the number one tourist destination. However, in terms of fossil energy resources, France is poor: very little oil and almost no coal and gas left.
It is the main reason why France has been, for now nearly 40 years, developing an intensive electro nuclear program. This program covers the entire industrial cycle (nuclear plants but also all the various stages of nuclear fuel cycle)...Read More
States can regulate subsurface injection and storage of CO2 within their jurisdiction in accordance with their national rules and regulations. Such rules and regulations could be provided by the mining laws, resource conservation laws, laws on drinking water, waste disposal, oil and gas production, treatment of high-pressurized gases, and others. An analysis of existing regulations in North America, Europe, Japan, and Australia highlights the lack of regulations that are specifically relevant for CO2 storage and the lack of clarity relating to post-injection responsibilities (IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, 2003; IOGCC, 2005).Read More
Risk management entails the application of a structured process to identify and quantify the risks associated with a given process, to evaluate these, taking into account stakeholder input and context, to modify the process to remove excess risks, and to identify and implement appropriate monitoring and intervention strategies to manage the remaining risks.
For geological storage, effective risk mitigation consists of four interrelated activities:
• Careful site selection, including performance and risk assessment, and socioeconomic and environmental factors
• Monitoring to provide assurance that the storage project is performing as expected and to provide early warning in the event that it begins to leak
• Effective regulatory oversight
• Implementation of remediation measures t...Read More
Risks to human health and safety arise (almost) exclusively from elevated CO2 concentrations in ambient air, either in confined outdoor environments, in caves, or in buildings. Physiological and toxicological responses to elevated CO2 concentrations are relatively well understood. At concentrations above ~2%, CO2 has a strong effect on respiratory physiology, and at concentrations above 7-10%, it can cause unconsciousness and death. Exposure studies have not revealed any adverse health effect of chronic exposure to concentrations below 1%...Read More
Carbon dioxide that exists as a separate phase (supercritical, liquid, or gas) may escape from formations used for geological storage through the following pathways:
1 Through the pore system in low-permeability caprocks such as mudstones, if the capillary entry pressure at which CO2 may enter the caprock is exceeded
2 Through openings in the caprock or fractures and faults
3 Through man-made pathways, such as poorly completed and/or abandoned pre-existing wells.
For onshore storage sites, CO2 that has leaked may reach the water table and migrate into the overlying vadose zone. This occurrence would likely include CO2 contact with drinking-water aquifers...Read More
The environmental impacts arising from geological storage fall into two broad categories: local environmental effects and global effects arising from the release of stored CO2 to the atmosphere. Global effects may alternatively be viewed as uncertainty in the effectiveness of CO2 storage. Local health, safety, and environmental hazards arise from three distinct causes:
– The direct effects of elevated gas-phase CO2 concentrations in the shallow subsurface and near-surface environment
– The effects of dissolved CO2 on groundwater chemistry
– The effects that arise from the displacement of fluids by the injected CO2
Risks are proportional to the magnitude of the potential hazards and the probability that these hazards will occur...Read More
Monitoring is needed for a wide variety of purposes. Specifically, monitoring can be
– Ensure and document effective injection well controls, specifically for monitoring the condition of the injection well and measuring injection rates, wellhead, and formation pressures. Petroleum industry experience suggests that leakage from the injection well itself, resulting from improper completion or deterioration of the casing, packers, or cement, is one of the most significant potential failure modes for injection projects (Perry, 2005; Apps, 2005).
– Verify the quantity of injected CO2 that has been stored by various mechanisms, such as depicted in Figure 5.2.4.
– Optimize the efficiency of the storage project, including utilization of the storage volume, injection pressures and drilling...Read More
Injection well technologies
Many of the technologies required for large-scale geological storage of CO2 already exist. Drilling and completion technology for injection wells in the oil and gas industry has evolved to a highly sophisticated state, such that it is now possible to drill and complete vertical and extended reach wells (including horizontal wells) in deep formations, wells with multiple completions, and wells able to handle corrosive fluids. Based on extensive oil industry experience, the technologies for drilling, injection, stimulations, and completions for CO2 injection wells exist and are being practiced with some adaptations in current CO2 storage projects...Read More